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外研版高中英语语法

作者:高考题库网
来源:https://bjmy2z.cn/gaokao
2020-10-30 18:24
tags:高中英语语法

骆驼蹄-嘉骐

2020年10月30日发(作者:尤珍)







外研版高中英语语法
标准化管理部编码-[99968T-6889628-J68568-1689N]





第1讲 简单句的五种基本结构
英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种
基本句型,是 掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。
英语五种基本句型结构如下:

主语 谓语
vi.

vt
用符号表示为:
.

宾语 ②
宾语(间)宾语(直)③
① S V (主+谓)
宾语 宾语补足语 ④
② S V O (主+谓+宾)
.
表语


③ S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾)
④ S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补)
⑤ S V P (主+系+表)

主语(subject)
宾语(object)
状语(adverbial)
表语(
predicative)

考点1. 基本句型 一:S V (主+谓)





谓语(predicate)
补语(complement)
定语(attribute)
这类句子的谓语动词都是不及物动词,都不带宾语,但可以带状语,常见的不及物动词
有: act, come, go, work, last, fall, cry, disappear, appear, smile, rise, ring,
live, look, listen, laugh, hurry, talk, sleep, graduate, die, care, agree, jump,
fail, wait, succeed, stay, sit, lie, shine, happen, take place, rain, snow, ect.
如:
It is raining now. (S V)
We've worked for 5 hours. (S V)
The meeting lasted half an hour. (S V)
Time flies. (S V)
练习1. 分析下列句子成分,并在后面括号内标明属于五种基本句型中的哪一种
1. Dark clouds hung overhead. ( )
2. Gradually a smile appeared on her face. ( )
3. He is smiling all over his face. ( )
4. I did well in English. ( )
5. He talked loudly in the classroom yesterday. ( )
考点2. 基本句型 二: S V P (主+系+表)
系动词主要是be. 但还有一些动词有些时候也可作系动词,有人称之为半系动词。
I. 如何辨别系动词



有些动词既可作连系动词,又可以作实义动词。如何来辨别呢有一个最简便的 方法,即用连
系动词be替换句子中的这些动词,句子仍然成立就是连系动词;反之,不能替换的,就是 行
为动词。如:
① She
looks
beautiful. (looks变为is之后,她是美丽的,句意没有大的变化,looks是系
动词)。

Look
at the picture.(look不能换为be, look为实义动词。)
③ He
felt
the book with his right hand.(feel是“摸”的意思,不能换为was, 是实义动
词)。
④ The silk
feels
soft.(这种丝绸摸起来很柔软,feels换为is之后,句意变化不大,因此
是系动词。)
练习2. 辨别下列粗体动词是系动词还是实义动词
1. The door
stays
open at night.
2. He
tasted
the food, and the food
tasted
delicious.
3. The book still
lies
open on the desk.
4. What he said
proved
true..
5. He can’t
proved
his theory(理论).
II. 常见的系动词
① 状态系动词
② 用来表示主语状态,只有be一词,例如:
③ He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。
④ 持续系动词
⑤ 用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep, remain, stay, lie, stand, 例
如:
⑥ He kept silent at the meeting. 他开会时保持沉默。
⑦ This matter remains a mystery. 此事仍是一个谜。
⑧ The food stays fresh in the fridge.
⑨ 食物在冰箱里仍然很新鲜。
⑩ The house stood empty for years.房子空了数年。
? He lies awake in bed.他躺在床上,醒着。
? 表“像”系动词
? 用来表示看起来像这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look, 例如:
? Something seems wrong. 好像出差了。
? He appears young. 他看起来很年轻。
? 感官系动词
? 感官系动词主要有look看起来,feel摸起来, smell闻起来, sound听起来, taste尝起来:
? This kind of cloth feels very soft.
? 这种布手感很软。
? This flower smells very sweet.



21 这朵花闻起来很香。
22 变化系动词
23 这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,变化系动词主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go,
come, run.
24 He became mad after that. 自那之后,他疯了。
25 She grew rich within a short time.
26 她没多长时间就富了。
27 He fell ill yesterday.他昨天病了。
28 Eggs go bad easily in spring.鸡蛋夏天容易变坏。
29 His face went red.他的脸变红了。
30 What he had dreamt of came true.
31 他的梦想实现了。
32 Still waters run deep.静水流深。
33 终止系动词
34 表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove, turn out, 表达证实,变成之意,例如:
35 The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。
36 His plan turned out a success.
37 他的计划终于成功了。(turn out表终止性结果)
38 What he predicted turned out (to be) wrong.
39 他预言的结果是错的。
练习3. 用下划线划出下列句中的系动词。
1. His advice proved right.
2. The shop stays open till 8 o’clock.
3. The machine went wrong.
4. All these efforts seem in vain.
5. These words sound reasonable.
6. The room soon became crowded.
7. The days are getting longer and longer.
8. He fell ill yesterday.
9. Trees turn green in spring.
10. What you said sounds great.
III. 系动词不能单独作谓语,要和表语一起作谓语
He is a student. (S V P)
Your idea sounds great. (S V P)
IV. 在一个英语单句中,一般情况要有谓语动词。
要注意:介词短语和形容词不能单独做谓语,要和系动词一起做谓语。
改错:



①Our school very beautiful and we like it very much.
②Your book on the desk.
写作专练1. 不要忘了使用系动词
1.
那食物很可口,我吃了很多。(the food, delicious)
2.

3.
那个电影好极了。(the movie, fantastic)
4.

5.
不过呢,一些人反对这个计划。(however, against, the plan)
6.

7.
他们的意见如下。(their opinion, as follows)
8.

9.
就我而言,我赞成这个主意。(as far as I’m concerned, in favor of)
10.

1.
他让我们看了一张世界地图。(show)
2.


基本句型 三: S V O (主+谓+宾)
3.
请把熊猫的照片寄给我一张。(send, a photo of the panda)
4.
考点3.
此结构是由“主语+及 物动词(词组)+宾语”构成。宾语可以是名词、代词、数词,动名词、
动词不定式或词组、the +形容词、分词以及从句等。如,
She likes English.
We planted a lot of trees on the farm yesterday.
练习4. 用下划线划出下列句中的宾语。
1. People all over the world speak English.
2. Jim cannot dress himself.
3. All of us believe that Jack is an honest boy.
4. He did not know what to say.
5. He just wanted to stay at home.
6. He practices speaking English every day.
考点4. 基本句型 四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾)
有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,如:gi ve给,pass递,bring带,show显示。这两个宾语通
常一个指人,为间接宾语;一个指物 ,为直接宾语。间接宾语一般位于直接宾语之前。
一般的顺序为:动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。
如:He gave me a cup of tea. (S V o O)
强调间接宾语顺序为:
动词 + 直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如:
Show this house to Mr. Smith.



若直接宾语为人称代词:动词+ 代词直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。
如:Bring it to me, please. (不能说 Bring me it, please。)
常跟双宾语的及物动词有:
(需借助to的)allow, bring, deny, give, grant, hand, leave, lend, offer, owe,
pass, pay, permit, promise, read, refuse, sell, send, show, teach, tell,wish,
write等
(需借助for 的) buy, choose, fetch, get, make, order, paint, play(演奏),save,
sing, spare等
『一般用to多些,用for的记住常用的三个就行:get, buy, make』
He sent me an English-Chinese Dictionary.
= He sent an English-Chinese Dictionary to me.
She bought John a book.= She bought a book for John.
练习5. 分析下列句子成分,口头说出间接宾语和直接宾语。
1. She ordered herself a new dress.
2. She cooked her husband a delicious meal.
3. He brought you a dictionary.
4. He denies her nothing.
5. I showed him my pictures.
6. I gave my car a wash.
7. I told him that the bus was late.
8. He showed me how to run the machine.
写作专练2. 用活双宾语句式(P25)
用两种方法翻译下列句子:
5.
他给我提供一些建议。(offer, some advice)
6.

7.
我欠他很多钱。(owe)
8.

9.
在我生日那天,母亲给我买了一件很特别的礼物。(buy, a special gift)
10.

11.
他给我做了一个纸飞机。(make, paper plane)
12.

13.
他给我们读了一个有趣的故事。(read, an interesting story)
14.

15.
他的叔叔留给他很多钱。(leave, a lot of money)
16.

考点5. 基本句型 五:SVOC (主+谓+宾+宾补)
此句型的句子的特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完 整的意思,必
须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完整。



宾语补足语:位于宾语之后对宾语做出说明的成分。宾语与其补足语有逻辑上的主谓关系,它
们 一起构成复合宾语。
The war made him a soldier.(SVOC他成为一个士兵,构成逻辑上的主谓关系)
New methods make the job easy. (SVOC)
I often find him at work. (SVOC)
The teacher asked the students to close the windows. (SVOC)
I saw a cat running across the road.
练习6. 分析下列句子划分成分,在后面括号内标明是什么充当句子的宾语补足语
1. They appointed him manager. ( )
2. They painted the door green. ( )
3. He pushed the door open. ( )
4. They found the house deserted. ( )
5. What makes him think so ( )
6. We saw him out. ( )
7. He asked me to come back soon. ( )
8. I saw them getting on the bus. ( )
9. We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here. ( )
10. I’ll have my bike repaired. ( )
11. We elected him monitor. ( )
12. Don’t keep the lights burning. ( )
考点6. there be 句型
此句型是由 there + be + 主语 + 状语 构成,用以表达某地存在有,它其实是倒装的一种情
况,主语位于谓语动词 be 之后,there 仅为引导词,并无实际意义。
1. be 与其后的主语在人称和数上一致,有时态和数的变化。
现在时 there is are …
过去时?? there was were…
将来时?? there will be… there is are going to be...
完成时? there has have been…
可能有? there might be...??
肯定有? there must be … there must have been...
过去曾经有? there used to be …?
似乎有? there seems seem seemed to be …
碰巧有? there happen happens happened to be …
2. 可用 live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive,等词代替be动词。
此时还表示存在有,但表意要更具体一些。
Eg. There lived an old man at the foot of the mountain.
There came a shout for



There exists no air on the moon.
There lies a book on the desk.
There stands a tree on the hill.
1. a certain doubt among the students as to the necessity of the work.
2. A. It existed
There had
B. There existed C. They had D.
3. ___ a beautiful palace ___ the foot of the hill.
4. A. There stand; at B. There stands; under C. Stands there; under D.
There stands; at
3. there be 与have 的区别
there be … 某地有某物,某时有某事;
have 表示某人拥有某物。
改错:
1. There has a book on the desk.
2. There will have a meeting this evening.
写作专练3. 正确运用两个“有”there be与have
1.
我有许多好朋友。
2.

3.
今天晚上将有一场电影。
4.

5.
公园内有许多人。
6.

7.
树上有许多小鸟。
8.

9.
一条狗有四条腿和一个尾巴。
第2讲 简单句、并列句和复合句
句子按结构可分为简单句、并列句和复合句。
考点1. 简单句
只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)。
. He often reads English in the morning.
Tom and Mike are American boys.
She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers.
(划线部分为并列谓语 ,只有一个主语,仍为简单句。)
考点2. 并列句
由并列连词(and, but, or等)或分号(;)把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起构成。要
注意哟,逗号是不可以连接句子的,这一点和汉语不同。
. You help him and he helps you.



The future is bright; the road is tortuous.
前途是光明的,道路是曲折的。
① 表示连接两个同等概念,常用and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then等连
接。
② The teacher’s name is Smith, and the student’s name is John.
③ He not only stole my money, but he also took my watch away.
④ 表示选择,常用的连词有or, either…or…, otherwise等。
⑤ Hurry up, or you’ll miss the train.
⑥ 表示转折,常用的连词有but, still, however, yet, while, when等。
⑦ He was a little man with thick glasses, but he had a strange way of making his
classes lively and interesting.
⑧ 表示因果关系,常用的连词有so, for, therefore等。
⑨ August is the time of the year for rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn
until dark.
考点3. 复合句
复合句含有两个或两个以上 主谓结构,其中一个主谓结构作另一个的成分。(而并列句的两个
主谓结构间是并列关系, 而不是从属 关系)。复合句包含:名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从
句、表语从句和同位语从句)、定语从句和状语从 句等。
当简单句的一个成分从词或词组变为句子时,整个句子就成为复合句了。
1. It is wrong. (只有一个主谓结构,是简单句)
2. What he said is wrong.
3. (what he said,是一个主谓结构,he为主语,said为谓语,what是宾语。What he said
is wrong. 是另外一个主谓结构。What he said作主语,is wrong系表结构作谓语。因
此,本句是复合句。What he said是名词性从句作主语)。
4. The boy over there is my brother. (只有一个主谓结构,是简单句)
5. The boy who is wearing a hat is my brother.
6. (The boy is my brother.是一个主谓结构 who is wearing a hat也是一个主谓结构,作
了前一个主谓结构中主语the boy的定语。因此本句是复合句。)
7. I was doing my homework at six. (只有一个主谓结构,是简单句)
8. I was doing my homework when he came in.
9. (I was doing my homework是一个主谓结构,he came in也是一个主谓结构。后面一个主
谓结构作前一个的时间状语。因此是复合句。
练习7. 判断下列句子是简单句、并列句还是复合句:
1. We often study Chinese history on Friday afternoon.
2. The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom.
3. There is a chair in this room, isn’t there
4. My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back
home at seven in the evening.
5. He is in Class One and I am in Class Two.



6. He was fond of drawing when he was yet a child.
7. Neither has he changed his mind, nor will he do so.
8. What he said at the meeting is very important, isn’t it
9. The farmer is showing the boy how to plant a tree.
10. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music.
11. Right now it is the summer vacation and I'm helping my Dad on the farm.
12. It is the time of year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn
until dark.
13. Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of our tractors.
14. We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder
they grow wheat
15. Although the farm is large, my Dad has only two men working for him.
考点4. 两个主谓结构时,要用连接词,变为并列句或复合句,或把逗号改为分号
一个句子如果出现两个主谓结 构,那它就不是简单句了,要么是并列句,要么是复合句。直接用逗号连接的
两个简单句是错误的。这是 ,我们有四种方法来改正这个错句:
1. 用and, so, but,等并列连词来构成并列句;
2. 把逗号改为分号;
3. 改为复合句;
4. 把一个主谓结构的谓语变成非 谓语或去掉be,从而变成独立主格结构。(参看P错误!未定义书签。错
误!未找到引用源。 )
I like English, my English is very good.×
I like English and my English is very good.√(并列句)
As I like English, my English is very good. √(含有原因状语从句的复合句)
I like English; my English is good. √(用分号)
I liking English, my English is very good. √ (把一个分句改为独立主格结构)
I have a house, its windows are very big. ×
I have a house and its windows are very big. √(并列句)
I have a house, whose windows are very big. √(含有定语从句的复合句)
I have a house; its windows are big. √ (用分号)
I have a house, its windows very big. √ (后面为独立主格结构)
练习8. 利用英语句子结构规律做下列各题:
1. Five people won the __ to ordinary people
for their contributions to environmental protection.
2. A. is given B. was given C. being given D. given
3. All the preparations for the task_____, and we're ready to start.
4. A. completed B. complete C. had been completed D. have been completed
5. 【2006辽宁】I was told that there were about 50 foreign students _____Chinese in
the school, most??_____were from Germany.?
6. A. study; of whom?? ?B. study; of them??? C. studying; of them?? D. studying; of?
whom??



7. Everywhere you can see people in their holiday dress, ____ with smiles.
8. A. their faces are shining B. whose faces shining C. their faces shining
9. Many students _____ around, I explained the story into details.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
A. stood B. standing C. to stand D. were standing
I have five friends, some of ____ are businessmen.
A. that B. whom C. they D. them
I have five friends, but none of___ are businessmen.
A. that B. whom C. they D. them
第二部分 专题过关测试



1. 改正下列句子的改错。
① Do exercise everyday is good for your health.
② That what he said isn’t true.
③ He came late made his teacher angry.
④ On the desk is two books.
⑤ Go to a key college is my dream.
2. 用 划出下列句中的后置定语,并指出是什么词性或结构充当的
① There is nothing to do today.
② The smiling boy needs the pen bought by his mother.
③ There are five boys left.
④ Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.
⑤ His rapid progress in English made us surprised.
⑥ The shop closest to my house is about one kilometer away.
⑦ He is not a man easy to deal with.
⑧ A typhoon swept across the area with heavy rains and winds as
strong as 113 miles per hour.
⑨ Students brave enough to take this adventure course will
certainly learn a lot of useful skills.
⑩ There is only one program worth watching today.
3. 用双横线分别划出下句中的间接宾语和直接宾语。
① I will bring you the book when I come next time.
② He asked the ruler why only the four rich men blew trumpets.
③ My grandfather bought me a pair of sports shoes.
④ She showed us many of her pictures.
⑤ Mr. Li is going to teach us history next term.
4. 分析下列句子成分, 体会宾语与宾补之间的逻辑关系,并指出宾补是什么
词性或结构充当。
① She found it difficult to do the work.
② They made him monitor of the class.
③ They pushed the door open.
④ Then suddenly I saw a man lying on the ground.
⑤ The old man asked us to sit down.
⑥ He noticed a man enter the room.
⑦ By speaking slowly, he made himself understood.
⑧ We want these trees planted soon.
⑨ I’ll get my hair cut tomorrow.



⑩ I left the bag lying on the ground.
5. 用双下划线标出it所代表的真正宾语。
① The chairman thought?it necessary to invite Professor Smith to
speak at the meeting.
② She made it her duty to look after all the other people’s
affairs in that town.?
③ I don't think it possible to master a foreign language without
much memory work.
④ He made it known to his friends that he didn’t want to enter
politics.
⑤ I leave it to your own judgment whether you should do it.

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肆掠-夹逼


朱羽-拂尘


国内的英文-欧债危机


马天琪-作文的英文


moonwalker-吸金磁



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