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《医学英语》翻译(魏凯峰)

作者:高考题库网
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2021-02-09 20:05
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2021年2月9日发(作者:开始)


Unit 1


1.


人体面朝上为仰卧位



A person is supine when lying face upward




2.


人体面朝下为俯卧位



A person is prone when lying face downward




3.

< p>
不同姿势影响对人体相对部位的描述



The position of the body can affect the description of body parts relative to each other.


4.


肘在腕的上方



The elbow is above the hand




5.

方位术语描述人体不同部位之间的相对关系



Directional terms describe parts of the body relative to each other.


6.


头部在人体的最高点



The head is the highest point of human body.


7.


人体的前面是腹面



The anterior surface of the human body is the ventral surface.


8.


脚在腿部的远端



The



foot



is attached at



distal



end



to



leg.


9.


外侧面指远离中线的方向



Lateral



means



away



from



the



midline.


10.


鼻位于眼睛内侧



The nose is located in a medial position in the face.


11.


皮肤在肌肉和骨的表面



The skin is superficial to the muscle and bone.


12.


矢状面将人体分为左右两部分



A



sagittal plane separates the body into right and left portions.


13.


冠状面从左到右垂直穿过人体



A



coronal



plane runs vertically from right to left.


14.


体腔包括鼻腔、颅腔、腹腔等



The body



contains the nasal, cranial, and abdominal cavities etc.


15.


纵膈中有心脏、胸腺、气管、食道以及血管、神经等。



The mediastinum contains the heart, thymus gland, trachea, esophagus, and other structures such as blood vessels and nerves.


Unit 2


1.


冠心病



coronary artery disease (CAD)



coronary heart disease (CHD)


2.


心绞痛



angina Pectoris


3.


临床表现



clinical manifestations


4.


诱发因素



precipitating factors


5.


心血管系统



cardiovascular system


6.


心肌梗塞



myocardial infarction (MI)


7.


发病机理



pathogenesis


8.


血管痉挛



vasospasm


1


9.


交叉性栓子



paradoxical emboli


10.


缺血性心肌病



ischemic cardiomyopathy


11.


如果心脏没有足够的含氧血液供给


,


就可能发生胸痛即心绞痛



When the heart has not enough oxygenated blood supply, chest pain will be resulted, called angina.


12.


心绞痛是冠心病的一个常见症状



Angina is a common symptom for coronary heart disease.


13.


一般体力活动(如步行 和登楼)不受限


,


仅在强、快、或长时间劳力时发生心绞痛



Ordinary physical activity, such as walking and climbing stairs, does not cause angina. Angina with strenuous1or rapid or prolonged exertion at


work or recreation.


14.


一切体力活动都引起不适


,


静息时发生心绞痛



Inability to carry on any physical activity , angina syndrome may be present at rest.


15.


在缺血性心脏病引起的死亡中


,


缺血性心肌病多达


40




Ischmic cardiomyopathy is responsible for as much as 40% of the mortality in ischemic heart disease (IHD)


Unit 3


1.



肺泡



alveolous


2.



低氧血症



hypoxemia


3.



终末细支气管



the terminal bronchioles


4.



急性呼吸道感染



acute respiratory tract infections


5.



二氧化碳潴留



carbon dioxide trapping


6.



动脉血气分析



Arterial blood gas analysis


7.



慢性呼吸衰竭



chronic respiratory failure


8.



肺气肿没有明显的肺纤维化。



Emphysema without obvious fibrosis


9.



慢性阻塞性肺病包括两个相关的疾病:慢性支气管炎和肺气肿。



COPD actually comprises two related diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema.


10.



引起慢性支气管炎的各种因素 如感染、吸烟、大气污染、职业性粉尘和有害的气体的长期吸入、过敏等


,


均可引起慢性阻塞性肺病


,


其中主要因素是吸烟。



Chronic bronchitis is caused by all kinds of factors, such as infection, cigarette smoking, air pollution, inhalations and allergies of


powder and toxic fumes from work in a long history,



which occurred COPD, and cigarette smoking is the most important one .


11.



治疗慢性阻塞性肺病的主要目的在于改善呼吸功能


,


提高患者工作和生活的能力。



The main purpose of therapy for COPD is improve respiration function and elevate the work and living ability of patients.


12.



慢性阻塞性肺病多发于长期吸烟的人群。



COPD typically occurs insidiously in individuals with a long history of cigarette smoking.


13.



健康教育对于慢阻肺患者很重要。



Health education can play an important role to COPD.


14.



停止吸烟有助于疾病的所有过程。



Stopping smoking is beneficial at all stages of the disease. Nicotine.


15.



长期氧疗可以提高存活期。





2


Long term oxygen therapy may increase life expectancy of patients


Unit 4


1.


软化食物



soften the food


2.


内痔



internal hemorrhoids


3.


肛周脓肿



perianal abscesses


4.


部分消化的食物



partially digested food


5.


结肠息肉



colon polyps


6.


感染性结肠炎



infectious colitis


7.


排便习惯改变



a change in normal bowel habits


8.


肠易激惹综合征



irritable bowel syndrome


9


.利用多种筛查


,


可以在出现症状之前防治结肠癌



By using a variety of screening tests, it is possible to prevent, detect, and treat the disease long before symptoms appear.


10


.几 乎所有的结肠直肠癌起源于息肉



Almost all colorectal cancers begin as polyps.


11


.便秘通常由食物中缺乏纤维所致



Constipation is usually caused by inadequate fiber in the diet.


1

< br>2


.结肠结构异常需进行外科治疗



The structural abnormality of colon needs to be treated surgically.


13

< p>
.肛裂的治疗包括服用止痛药、多食食物纤维及药物坐浴



Treatment for anal fissures includes pain medicine, more dietary fiber and sitz baths with drugs.


14


.胰腺可以分泌唾液淀粉酶



Pancreas can secrete ptyalin.


15


.通过保持建康的生活方式


,


许多结肠和直肠疾病可以得到预防



Many diseases of the colon and rectum can be prevented by maintaining a healthy lifestyle.


Unit 5


1.


如果肾小球损害严重


,


红细胞穿过肾小球


,


形成血尿。



If the glomeruli are severely damaged, erythrocytes pass through causing haematuria.


2.


毒素在体内堆积。



Toxins build up in the body.


3.


只有一个肾脏可以即可以正常发挥作用。








Kidneys can carry out their normal functions even if only one is working.


4.


最常见的肾衰的原因是糖尿病和高血压。



The most common causes of kidney failure are diabetes and high blood pressure.


5.


过滤血浆



filter the blood of waste products and excess water


6.


如果这些肾单位不能正常滤过


,


肾脏将会停止工作。



If nephrons don't carry out the filtering process, the kidney will stop functioning.


7.


减少食物中胆固醇量



reducing intake of protein and phosphate


8.


肾脏具有强大的功能储备



3


The kidneys have a large functional reserve.


9.


在等待肾移植时,可以进行血液透析



Dialysis is



used while waiting for a suitable transplant opportunity.


10.


肾脏可以将废物滤出体外



Kidneys can filter waste products out of the body.



11.


大分子蛋白进入尿中形成蛋白尿



Large protein molecules are lost in the urine causing proteinuria


12.


肾脏衰竭通常是一个渐进性的过程



Usually kidney failure is a gradual process.



13.


如果肾单位不能进行滤过,肾脏将停止工作



If nephrons don't carry out the filtering process, the kidney will stop functioning.


14.


在肾病的晚期,肾脏皱缩,表面不平,变硬



When kidney disease is advanced, the kidneys are shrunken, have an uneven shape and are firm to touch.


15.


减少蛋白及核苷类食物摄入以减轻肾脏负担



Reducing intake of protein and phosphate can ease the strain on the kidneys.


Unit 6


1.


糖尿病



diabetes mellitus


2.


碳水化合物


carbohydrate


3.


胰腺


pancreas


4.


急慢性病


acute and chronic disease


5.


高血糖症


hyperglycemia


6.


传染性病



communicable disease


7.


脱水


dehydrate


8.


蛋白质代谢


protein metabolism


9.


感染


infection


10.


并发症


complication


11.


胰岛素是胰腺分泌的一种能调节糖、脂肪等物质代谢的激素。



Insulin is a hormone that is secreted from the pancreas, which is able to regulate the metabolisms of the nutrients, such as


carbohydrate , fat.


12.


糖尿病是一种因体内胰岛素的相对或绝对不足而引起糖、脂肪和蛋白质代谢紊乱的慢性代谢性疾病 。



Diabetes


is


a


chronic


metabolic


disease


caused


by


insufficient


production


of


insulin, including


either


absolutely


or


relative


to the body’s n


eeds, which lead to the disorders of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.


13.


糖尿病的早期症状有:食欲增加


,


尿量增加


,


体重减轻


,


疲劳、视力模糊等。



The early symptoms of diabetes are manifested as increased appetite, polyuria, weight loss, fatigue, blured vision, etc.


14.


糖尿病的慢性并发症与血管疾病有关


,


包括小血管和大血管疾病。



The complications of diabetes are associated with vascular diseases, including microvascular and macrovascular diseases.


15.


糖尿病的治疗因人而异


,


其方法包括减轻体重


,


饮食控制


,


锻炼


,


口服药物


,


注射胰岛素等等。



The treatment of diabetes must be individualized, which involves reducing body weight, diet control, physical exercise,


medication and insulin injection.




Unit 7


1.


中风


stroke, apoplexy


2.


瘫痪


paralysis


3.


康复


rehabilitation


4.


中枢神经系统


central nervous system


5.


周围神经系统


peripheral nervous system


6.


颅内出血


intracerebral haemorrhage


7.


脑梗塞由血栓堵塞脑部血管所致



cerebral infarction results from the blockage of blood vessels in the brain induced by a blood clot


4


8.


蛛网膜下腔出血通常表现有突然的剧烈头痛



subarachnoid haemorrhage is commonly manifested as sudden



severe headache.


9.


中风的治疗包括药物、手术、住院治疗和康复治疗



The treatment of stroke includes medications, surgery, hospitalization, and rehabilitation


10.


中风患者的恢复情况取决于大脑受损的程度



The recovery of stroke depends on the extent of brain tissue damaged


12.


血液受阻的原因可能是动脉堵塞或者动脉壁破裂



The obstruction of blood circulation may be caused by the blockage or rapture of an artery.


13.


短暂性脑缺血症状可与中风相似


,


但 患者在


24


小时内得以恢复



The symptoms of transient ischemic attack resemble to those of a stroke, but they may resolve within 24 hours.


14


.脑部动脉痉挛引起大脑局部缺血



Arterial Spasm causes the cerebral ischaemia in the part of brain.


15


.高血压患者较血压正常人群更容易出现动脉瘤



hypertensive patients are more likely to have aneurysms than normotensive people.


Unit 8


1.


血红蛋白


Hemoglobin


2.


白蛋白




Albumin


3.


晕厥




Syncope


4.


促红细胞生成素


Erythropoietin


5.


网织红细胞



Reticulocyte


6.



/


慢性出血



Acute / chronic bleeding


7.


静脉痉挛


Venouspasm


8.


劳累性心动过速


Fatigue tachycardia


9.


再生障碍性贫血


Aplastic anemia


10.


失血性贫血


Hemorrhagic anemia


11.


突发性的严重的出血可诱发低血容量性休克


,


心血管衰竭


,


甚至死亡。



Sudden,severe hemorrhage can induce hypovolemic shock, cardiovascular failure, and death.


12.


慢性失血会消耗铁储备引起缺铁性贫血。



Chronic blood loss will deplete iron stores and produce an iron deficiency anemia.


13.


正常人可以轻易耐受总血容量


20%


的失血量。



Blood volume losses of up to 20%of the total blood volume are readily tolerated by a normal individual.


14.


骨髓对贫血的反应能力部分取决于促红细胞生成素的刺激水平



The capacity of marrow to respond(to the anemia) depends on the level of erythropoietin


stimulaiton.


15.


慢性内出血诊断更难。



Slower bleeding internally can be harder to diagnose.


Unit 9


1


鉴别诊断


Differential diagnosis


2


流行病学


Incidence and epidemiology


3


银屑病关节炎


Psoriatic arthritis


4


骨关节炎


Osteoarthritis


5


寰枢关节


Atlantoaxial joint


6


齿突


Odontoid prcess


7


腰椎


Lumbar


8


拇趾外翻


Hallux valgus


9


近端指


(



)


间关节


Proximal interphalangeal joint


10


颈椎病


Cervical spondylosis


11


从出现症状到确诊平均需要


6< /p>


个月到


1




The average time from the onset of symtoms to diagnosis is about 6 months to 1 year.




5

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