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简明中国历史介绍(英文)

作者:高考题库网
来源:https://bjmy2z.cn/gaokao
2021-02-22 19:40
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2021年2月22日发(作者:迫切的恳求)


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The Neolithic period began in China about 12,000 B.C. However, good


evidence of Neolithic settlements exists from only about 4,000 B.C. The


Neolithic lasted until about 2,000 B.C. It is defined by a spread of settled


agricultural


communities, but


hunting


and


gathering


was


still


practiced.


The largest concentration of agriculture was below the southern bend of


the


Y


ellow


River


and


millet


was


the


main


crop.


The


geography


of


Neolithic China was different from today. It was much wetter, with most


of Northern China being lakes and marshes and central China covered in


an


enormous


lake.


The


climate


was


warm


and


moist,


rather


than


the


colder, arid China of today. The mountains were well forested and there


was a variety of animals.


Silk


production,


for


which


China


is


famous,


had


already


been


invented


before this time period began. The process began


in Northern China. It


involved feeding the silkworms mulberry


leaves, helping them molt and


spin


their


cocoons,


and


finally,


boiling


the


cocoons


to


produce


the


raw


silk. Pottery was also present during this time period. The two main types,


Painted


Pottery


and


Black


Pottery,


belong


to


the


two


distinct


cultural


groups of the Neolithic, the Y


angshao and the Lungshan. These two types


of pottery were not for everyday use, rather, a plain course type of pottery


was used that varied between the colors gray, black, red, and white. The


dwellings of this time were in clusters that suggest kinship was important.


Clothing


was


made


of


hemp


and


the


main


domesticated


animals


were


pigs and dogs.


The Y


angshao lived in the mountainous regions of northern and western


China


in round or rectangular


houses that were below ground level and


surrounded by little walls of earth. They created Painted Pottery that had


geometric designs on


it. The pottery was fired at 1000-1500°


C, but the


potters wheel was not used. Axes and arrowheads were made of polished


stone and other tools were made of stone chips. Millet was the main crop


of the Y


angshao. They domesticated two main animals, the dog and the


pig, with the pig being the more important..


The Lungshan


lived on the plains of eastern China. Their villages were


similar to those of the Y


angshao, but evidence of stamped earth fortresses


is found in some sites. They created Black Pottery. This pottery was of


exceptional quality. It had a polished exterior, was never painted, and is


almost


always


without


decoration.


This pottery


may


have


been


a


direct


predecessor


to


later


Chinese


pottery,


as


the


forms


of


the


vessels


are


typical


of


Chinese


pottery.


Firing


bones


for


the


purpose


of


divination,


which continued into the following dynasties, also began during this time.


The Lungshan began to bury their dead facing downwards, which is how


all


bodies


were


buried


during


the


Bronze


Age.


They


used


bones


for


arrowheads and small tools, but used polished stones for axes and sickles.


Their domesticated animals were the pig, dog, sheep, and ox..



X


i


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n


a


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t


y



For many years, the Xia Dynasty was thought to be a part of a myth that


the Chinese tell as part of their history. The Xia Dynasty was in oral


histories, but no archaeological evidence was found of it until 1959.


Excavations at Erlitous, in the city of Yanshi, uncovered what was most


likely a capital of the Xia Dynasty. The site showed that the people were


direct ancestors of the


Lungshan


and were predecessors of the


Shang


.


Radiocarbon dates from this site indicate that they existed from 2100 to


1800 B.C. Despite this new archaeological evidence of the Xia, they are


not universally accepted as a true dynasty.


The Xia were agrarian people, with bronze weapons and pottery. The


ruling families used elaborate and dramatic rituals to confirm their power


to govern. The rulers often acted as shamans, communicating with spirits


for help and guidance.






S


h


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D


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The Shang, rather than the


Xia


, is considered by most to be the first true


dynasty of China. Like the Xia, the Shang were originally considered to


be


a


myth.


They


were


discovered


because


Chinese


phamacists


were


selling oracle bones the Shang had created; the parmacists sold the bones


as dragon bones. The bones were first noticed in 1899 and by the 1920's


were


traced


to


Anyang


,


where


the


last


Shang


capital


was


found


and


excavated. Excavations were halted in 1937, when Japan attacked China.


In


the


1950's


an


earlier


Shang


capital


was


found


near


present


day


Zhengzhou. Traditional Chinese history indicates that the Shang Dynasty


consisted of 30 kings and seven different, successive, capitals. The


Zhou


,


the dynasty that followed the Shang, are responsible for the recordings of


the kings and capitals of the Shang Dynasty.


The center of the Shang capitals had the ruler's palace. Surrounding this


were houses of artisans. These houses were rectangular, using a post and


beam construction and were built on stamped earth platforms.


Subterranean pithouses were located near the capital, which may have


been used for storage and service quarters. The Shang people had bronze


weapons, bronze fittings for chariots and harnesses, and bronze vessels


connected with worship. Everyday vessels were of earthenware, rather


than bronze, because metals were scarce in China. The earthenware of


this time was almost porcelain, only missing the glaze that would have


made it porcelain. Despite being agriculturalists, the Shang had rather


primitive implements. They did not use ploughs, favoring hoes instead,


and most of the implements were made of wood and stone. They grew


grains such as millet and some wheat, which were harvested with sickles.


The Shang had a unique form of descent. Rather than passing from father


to son, the Shang form of descent passed from the eldest brother to the


youngest brother.


One of the most important technological developments of the Shang was


the invention of writing. They are the first group of people from China of


which written records are found. The most common place these writings


are found is on oracle bones used for divination. The bones used for this


purpose originally came from a number of animals, but were eventually


done exclusively on turtle shells. A question was written on the bone,


which was then fired and a T shaped crack was produced which was


interpreted, and the interpretation was then written on the bone. After the


predicted event occurred, the date of the occurrence was also written on


the bone. Writing is also found on bronze and stone, but the majority of


the records have decayed as they were recorded on bamboo strips. The


Shang may also have written on silk.


The Shang worshipped the


over lesser gods, the sun, the moon, the wind, the rain, and other natural


forces and places. Highly ritualized, ancestor worship became a part of


the Shang religion. Sacrifice to the gods and the ancestors was also a


major part of the Shang religion. When a king died, hundreds of slaves


and prisoners were often sacrificed and buried with him. People were also


sacrificed in lower numbers when important events, such as the founding


of a palace or temple, occurred.



The Shang king had considerable power over his subjects. Public works


were built that required many people. The capital at Zhengzhou, for


example, had a wall of stamped earth around it that was four miles long


and up to 27 feet high in areas. Stamped earth walls were made by


pounding thin layers of earth within a movable wooden frame. The earth


then becomes as hard as cement.





Z


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The


Zhou


began


as


a


semi-nomadic


tribe


that


lived


to


the


west


of


the


Shang


kingdom. Due to their nomadic ways, they


learned how to work


with


people


of


different


cultures.


After


a


time,


they


settled


in


the


Wei


River


valley,


where


they


became


vassals


of


the


Shang.


The


Zhou


eventually became stronger than the Shang, and in about 1040 B.C. they


defeated the Shang


in


warfare. They built their capital


in


Xi'an. Part of


their


success


was


the


result


of


gaining


the


allegiance


of


disaffected


city-states. The Shang were also weakened due to their constant warfare


with people to the north.


Traditional Chinese history says that the Zhou were able to take over the


Shang because the Shang had degenerated morally. Part of this belief may


have been caused by the Zhou themselves, who are credited with the idea


of the Mandate of Heaven. The Zhou used this idea to validate their


takeover and subsequent ruling of the former Shang kingdom. The


Mandate of Heaven says that Heaven, or


tian,


places the mandate,


tianming,


to rule on any family that is morally worthy of the


responsibility. Also, the only way to know if the Mandate of Heaven had


been removed from the ruling family was if they were overthrown. If the


ruler is overthrown, then the victors had the Mandate of Heaven.


The Zhou adopted much of the Shang lifestyle, often importing Shang


families or communities to new towns they built to utilize the knowledge


of the Shang artisans. The bronze vessels of the Zhou are nearly identical


with those of the Shang. The Zhou also adopted much of the Shang


writing system, rituals, and administration techniques. The Zhou however,


began a different form of governing, which was basically feudal. Land


was given to people in elaborate ceremonies. The landowners became


vassals to the king. Descent became patriarchal, from father to son, rather


than from eldest brother to youngest brother as practiced by the Shang.


The Zhou, despite transporting the Shang to their cities for their skills, did


not want to live directly with the Shang. Their capital was divided into


two sections, one for the Zhou, that contained the imperial court, and the


other half for the transported Shang. Other Zhou cities exhibit this same


characteristic. However, this was the only major change in cities from the


Shang Dynasty to the Zhou Dynasty. Otherwise, the houses remained the


same as in the Shang Dynasty.


The Zhou also brought their religion with them. They banned human


sacrifice. They practiced the cult of Heaven. The worship of sun and stars


was the most important thing. Some of the popular Shang gods became


incorporated into this system. They were lesser gods, and served as feudal


lords to the Heaven-god.



The Zhou Dynasty is divided into subperiods. The first is the Western


Zhou, which occurs from the time of their victory over the Shang until


about 771 B.C. when they were forced east by barbarians from the north.


The king was killed but his son was saved and moved east where a new


capital was formed in Loyang. This began the period known as the


Eastern Zhou. The Eastern Zhou is further divided into two time periods,


the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period. The Spring


and Autumn Period occurred from about 770-476 B.C. During this time,


the Zhou emperor steadily lost power due to the realization by the feudal


lords that he was not powerful and could be beaten, which had been


proven by the defeat in the west. The second half, the Warring States


Period, is so named because of the power struggle between the large


states of China that were trying to gain control over the entire area. It


lasted from about 475 - 221 B.C.



This time period of the Warring States is considered the classical age, it


was a time of great philosophers. This cultural flowering is sometimes


called the One Hundred Schools Period. Confucianism, Taoism, and


Legalism developed during this time. Of these three, Legalism had the


most immediate effect, as it was the philosophy that the


Qin


, the next


dynasty used as the basis of their rule. Some of the most memorable


poetry and prose was also written during this time. Other advances


included the writing down of the laws, an increase in market places, and a


money economy. The development of iron, and tools made of iron,


greatly increased agriculture and thus population exploded.




Q


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The Qin came to power in 221 B.C. They were one of the western states


that existed during the Warring States Period. They conquered the other


Warring States,


unifying China for the first time. Their leader named


himself the First Emperor, or Shi huangdi, thus beginning the tradition of


having emperors for rulers. The Qin, while not the most culturally


advanced of the Warring States was militarily the strongest. They utilized


many new technologies in warfare, especially cavalry. The Qin are


sometimes called the Ch'in, which is probably where the name China


originated.


The Qin made many changes that were meant to unify China and aid in


administrative tasks. First, the Qin implemented a Legalist form of


government, which was how the former Qin territory had been governed.


The area was divided up in 36 commanderies which were then subdivided


into counties. These commanderies had a civil governor, a military


commander, and an imperial inspector. The leaders of the commanderies


had to report to the Emperor in writing. The Legalist form of government


involved rewards and punishments to keep order. Also, the state had


absolute control over the people, and the former nobility lost all of their


power. The nobility were also transplanted from their homes to the capital.


Groups were formed of units of five to ten families, which then had a


group responsibility for the wrongdoings of any individual within the


group.



The achievements of the Qin are numerous. They standardized the


language and writing of China, which had varied greatly from area to area


during the Warring States Period. This was done partially out of a need to


have a consistent way to communicate across the country; administrators


had to be able to read the writing of the commandery to which they were


sent. Also, currency became standardized as a circular copper coin with a


square hole in the middle. Measurements and axle length were also made


uniform. This was done because the cartwheels made ruts in the road, and


the ruts had to all be the same width, or carts with a different axle length


could not travel on them. Many public works projects were also


undertaken. A Great Wall was built in the north, to protect against


invasions. Roads and irrigation canals were built throughout the country.


Also, a huge palace was built for Shi huangdi. The Qin are also famous


for the terra cotta army that was found at the burial site for Shi huangdi.


The army consisted of 6,000 pottery soldiers that protected the tomb.


They may be a replacement for the actual people who had previously


been buried with the rulers.


Despite all of these accomplishments, Shi huangdi was not a popular


leader. The public works and taxes were too great a burden to the


population. It seemed that Shi huangdi could not be satisfied. Also, the


nobility disliked him because they were deprived of all their power and


transplanted. Finally, he banned all books that advocated forms of


government other than the current one. The writings of the great


philosophers of the


One Hundred Schools


time were burned and more


than 400 opponents were executed.


The Qin rule came to an end shortly after the First Emperor's death. Shi


huangdi had only ruled for 37 years, when he died suddenly in 210 B.C.


His son took the throne as the Second Emperor, but was quickly


overthrown and the


Han dynasty


began in 206 B.C.



H


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y



The Han empire began in 206 B.C. when Liu Bang, prince of Han,


defeated the


Qin


army in the valley of Wei. The defeat was part of a


larger rebellion that began after the First Emporer's death. The people


were dissatisfied with the tyranny of the Qin leaders and their Legalist


form of government. However, while traditional Chinese history portrays


the Han as implementing immediate changes in government, evidence


shows the Han continued to rule in the tradition of the Qin, and only


gradually incorporated Confucian ideals into their Legalist form of


government. Economic expansion, changing relationships with the people


of the steppes, strengthening of the palace at the expense of the civil


service, weakening of the state's hold on the peasantry, and the rise of the


families of the rich and the gentry were all factors that led to the adoption


of Confucian ideals..


Under this new form of Legalism and Confucianism, rewards and


punishments were still used for common people. However, the


administrators were judged based on Confucian principles with the


justification for these different sets of standards as they were educated.


As a last resort, the ruler could use punishment for both the people and


the officials. It was believed that force alone was not a sufficient way to


rule and so the emperor needed the help of the Confucianists to guide him


morally. Evidence of rulers using their power to punish is found in the


records of officials who were beheaded.


When Liu Bang conquered the Qin, he created his capital at Ch'ang-an.


He kept most of the laws and regulations by the Qin and made many of


his friends nobility and gave them fiefs. However, the land was still


divided up into commanderies and prefectures. Even the fiefs given out


were treated like commanderies. Han power was based on direct control


of people by the state.


Like the Qin before them, the main goal of the Han was the unification of


China. This goal led to the eventual breakup of the fiefs and the downfall


of the imperial nobility. This process was finally complete during Wu Ti's


reign (141-87 B.C.) His reign was a period of great military expansion.


He expanded the borders into Vietnam and Korea and pushed the Hsiung


nu south of the Gobi. Wu Ti transplanted an estimated 2 million people to


the northwestern region in order to colonize these areas.


The expansion also led to trade with the people of inner Asia. Thereafter,


the Silk Road was developed. The Silk Road actually consisted of more


than one possible route through the mountains that the traders followed.


Agriculture grew with the development of better tools. Iron tools were


made of better quality, and oxen drawn ploughs were commonly used.


Irrigation systems were increased to help develop the areas of North


China. Crop rotation was also practiced from 85 B.C. onwards. The state


attempted to monopolize the production of iron and salt, which were the


two biggest sectors of the economy, but succeeded for less than a century.


Silk weaving and copper work were also important activities.


Education became more important during this period, as a new class of


gentry was introduced. A result of this was the compilation of many


encyclopedias. The best known is the


Book of the Mountains and Seas


,


which contained everything known at the time about geography, natural


philosophy, the animal and plant world, and popular myths. Sima Qian,


considered to be China's greatest historian wrote his famous


Records of


the Historian (Shiji)


during this time. This history book became the


model by which all other histories would follow. It was one of the first


attempts in China to make a record of the past in a proper form.


The Han Dynasty is actually two separate dynasties. It is considered one


dynasty by the Chinese because the second dynasty was founded by a


member of the former Han dynasty who declared he had restored the Han


Dynasty. The original Han Dynasty was overthrown when the wealthy


families gained more power than the emperor. The families became allied


with each other through marriages and were responsible for the selection


of officials. The widow of the emperor Yü


an Ti succeeded in placing all


of her relatives in government positions and ruling in place of her son.


Her nephew, Wang Mang eventually declared himself emperor of a new


dynasty, the Hsing (New). His rise to emperor is unusual because he


gained much public support on his rise and he began a ceremony in which


a seal of precious stone was passed to the emperor. From then on,


whoever held this seal was the official emperor. Wang Mang was


overthrown by a secret society of peasants known as the Red Eyebrows,


because they painted their eyebrows red. The descendents of the Han


dynasty eventually joined in the uprising, and, it was the armies of these


nobles, under the leadership of Liu Hsiu, who killed Wang Mang in


22A.D. The fighting continued until 25 A.D., when Liu Hsiu became the


emperor. As an emperor he was called Kuang-wu Ti. Millions of people


died during the fighting, leaving land for the peasants, and often, the


freedom of debt as the lenders had died.


The second Han Dynasty had much success with their foreign policy. Part


of this success was due more to luck than to anything the Han did. The


Hsiung nu who had previously been one of the most dangerous enemies


of the Chinese were defeated by the Hsien-pi and the Wu- huan. Half of


the Hsiung nu moved south, and became part of the Chinese empire. The


Hsiung


nu


appeared


to


be


trying


to


reunite


and


form


a


large


empire


comprising


all


of


Turkestan.


Thus,


in


73


A.D.


the


Chinese


began


a


campaign


in Turkestan. The whole of Turkestan was quickly conquered


which


would


have


ensured


a


trading


monopoly,


however,


the


emperor


Ming Ti died and Chang Ti became emperor. He favored an isolationist


policy so that much of what was gained in Turkestan was now lost. Pan


Ch'ao,


the


deputy


commander


who


had


led


the


invasion,


stayed


in


Turkestan to try and hold onto what had been won, and eventually in 89


A.D. a new emperor came to power with a renewed


interest


in holding


Turkestan. Despite this military success, economic and political struggles


arose within China. Internal struggles for power taxed the peasants, until


in 184 A.D. when another peasant uprising occurred. This movement was


begun by the Y


ellow Turbans. This uprising served to unite the factions


who


had


previously


been


fighting


one


another


because


they


needed


to


unite to defeat the Y


ellow Turbans. Despite conquering them, China did


not return to a united state. Rather,


three kingdoms


emerged and the Han


dynasty came to an end.



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The end of the


Han Dynasty


was followed by a long period of disunity


and civil war. It began with the Three Kingdoms. These kingdoms grew


out of the three chief economic areas of the


Han Dynasty


. The leaders of


the kingdoms strove to reunite the empire and were therefore at constant


warfare. These three kingdoms were the Wei, in northern China, the Shu


to the west, and the Wu in the east. The Three Kingdoms existed from


220-265 A.D.


Buddhism


began to spread throughout China during this


period. It was introduced in the first century A.D. but did not really begin


to spread until after the Han empire collapsed. Tea, although not as


popular as it would be in later times, was discovered in the south during


this period. Porcelain was also developed during this time.



The kingdom of Wei was ruled by Ts'ao Ts'ao. This was the strongest of


the kingdoms, and he had power over the valley of Wei even during the


time of the Han rule. Ts'ao Ts'ao attempted to unify all of China under his


rule, but was defeated by Sun Ch'ü


an and Liu Pei in the battle of the Red


Cliff. This defeat was the beginning of the division into three kingdoms.


The Wei and Shu kingdoms were both centralized, legalist kingdoms,


while the Wu kingdom was ruled by a confederation of the most powerful


families of the area. The Wei kingdom eventually captured the Shu


kingdom in 263 A.D.



Ts'ao Ts'ao instituted many military changes that would have a great


impact on the future of China. His army consisted of both Chinese and


people that were considered barbarians, the Hsiung-nu, the Hsien-pei,


Wu-huan and the Ch'iang. The members of his army who provided the


best troops were the former nomadic herdsmen of the steppes. They were


the most skilled mounted bowmen. The use of people from different


groups resulted in an assimilation among the people which had not


occurred in the past. In the future, these assimilated nomads would form


independent kingdoms in North China. The Ssu-ma was a militant family


that rose to power very quickly, and one of its members, Ssu-ma Yen


founded the new


Chin Dynasty


in 265 A.D.



C


h


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D


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n


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y



Ssu-ma Yen began the Chin Dynasty; he ruled from 265-289A.D. As an


emperor, he was called Wu Ti. The Chin managed to reunify China when,


in 280 A.D., they conquered the Wu Kingdom, thus ending the period of


The Three Kingdoms


. Despite this success, they were not a stable empire.


After defeating the Wu, there was no longer a serious danger of being


invaded. Therefore, the emperor declared the armies should be disbanded,


and all the arms returned. However, this did not occur in every region.


The princes, most of whom had been given their titles due to their


relationship to the emperor, declared they needed personal guards. The


discharged soldiers belonged mainly to the state and didn't give up their


weapons either. Instead, they sold them, mainly to the Hsiung-nu and the


Hsien-pi. This was a fatal mistake of the Chin government, as it made


them virtually powerless, while all their rivals and enemies gained power.


After the death of Ssu-ma Yen, there was never again a strong leader. The


leaders and princes were often assassinated in the struggle for power.


During this time, the Chinese people surrounding the capital suffered due


to the fighting and began a migration out from the center of the empire to


the more peaceful frontier regions.


The Chin were eventually defeated by the Huns, who claimed they were


descendents of the


Han Dynasty


because of the Han princesses given to


them in marriage. However, they never succeeded in forming a true


dynasty and uniting China. Rather, the disunity continued with the


Northern and Southern dynasties


. The defeated Chin fled and from


317-420 they ruled as the Eastern Chin in Nanking.







D


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N


o


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S


o


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t


h



The Dynasties of the North and South were another lengthy period of


disunity and internal strife for China. It lasted from 317-589A.D. During


this time period, the north and south were split and two separate


successions of dynasties formed. In both the north and the south, there


were different groups of rulers. Many of the dynasties overlapped each


other in terms of time.



The northern dynasties consisted of the Northern Wei (386-533A.D.), the


Eastern Wei (534-540A.D.), the Western Wei (535-557A.D.), the


Northern Qi (550-577A.D.) and the Northern Zhou (557-588). The


southern dynasties consisted of the Song (420-478 A.D.), the Qi (479-501


A.D.), the Liang (502-556 A.D.) and the Chen (557-588 A.D.).



In the north especially,


Buddhism


flourished. This was due partly to the


fact that the nobles who had been the main followers of Confucianism


moved south. The tenets of Buddhism appealed to the country people for


a number of reasons, but especially because of Buddhism's promise of an


afterlife, which is nonexistent in Confucianism. The poor who had


suffered under the wealthy were offered hope in Buddhism's


reincarnation to a better life if one lived their current life well. This meant


the nobles who had oppressed them would come back to a harder life and


they would come back to a better life. Another factor in the spread of


Buddhism was China was ruled by non-Chinese, who were not already


committed to the Confucian religion or the traditional shamanistic


religions of China.




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The


Sui


Dynasty


lasted


from


580-618


A.D.


The


Sui


once


again


united


China.


They


were


led


in


their


campaign


to


unite


China


by


Y


ang


Chien


who had been an official of the


Northern Zhou


. The Sui Dynasty had only


two emperors, Y


ang Chien who was called Emperor Wen Ti and his son


Emperor Y


ang. Traditionally, Emperor Y


ang is portrayed as usurping the


imperial


power, and is criticized for the amount of money he spent and


his


cruelty


to


the


people.


Y


et


most


of


the


policies


he


followed


were


simply continuations of his father's policies.


Despite having a short lifetime, the Sui Dynasty accomplished many


things. The Grand Canal was extended north from Hangzhou across the


Yangzi to Yangzhou and then northwest to the region of Louyang. The


internal administration also improved during this time, which is evident


by several things; the building of granaries around the capitals, the


fortification of the Great Wall along the northern borders, the


reconstruction of the two capitals near the Yellow River, and building of


another capital in Yangchow. Confucianism also began to regain


popularity, as the nobles gained importance.


The Sui rulers were interested in expanding their borders and, along with


their public works projects, they began costly military campaigns. They


were largely successful with their efforts at territorial expansion into the


south. However, to the north, in Korea, they did not achieve much. They


attacked Korea four times, and each time were met with defeat. These


defeats in Korea led to an attack by the Khan of the eastern Turks who


surrounded the emperor. Independent governments arose and for five


years, China was again split into smaller states.




T



a


n


g



D


y


n


a


s


t


y



The T’ang are closely associated with the


Sui


, and are often discussed as


the same dynasty. Their dynasty lasted from 618-907 A.D. Much of their


power was made possible through the canals built by the


Sui


. These


canals allowed for communications to all parts of the empire. Also, the


granaries the Sui built alongside the canals helped the T’ang to transport


goods from the south to the north. This especially was important in the


transfer of rice to the north in times of famine. These canals were


important in the econ


omic development of the T’ang empire.



The T’ang expanded on the administrative system that dated from the 4


th



and 3


rd


centuries B.C. and earlier. The administration was comprised of


four main departments: a Department of State Affairs, an Imperial


Chancellory, an Imperial Grand Secretariat, and a Council of State.


Judicially, the T’ang also made many advances. They first compiled the


T’ang Code in 624 A.D. This is the first complete Chinese code that still


exists. It consists of a continuous scale of penalties that are applied based


on both the crime and the degree of relation between the criminal and the


offended person. The degree was based on the amount of time that would


be spent in mourning if the person died. The T’ang Code had more than


five hundred articles divided into twelve sections.



The land distribution program of the T’ang was an important part of both


their agricultural reform and their economic growth. The T’ang


implemented a program where they gave life plots to the peasant families.


This w


as supposed to be an equal distribution of the land. The T’ang


wanted to ensure that the families had enough land to both support


themselves and to pay taxes. Taxes were based therefore, not on how


much land one had, but on the number of people in the family. Each


person was responsible for certain taxes. This system of taxation by

-


-


-


-


-


-


-


-



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