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中国近代史简述英文版

作者:高考题库网
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2021-02-22 19:40
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2021年2月22日发(作者:elemment)


Modern Period






1840-1919


)……



……






The Opium War of 1840 marked a turning point in Chinese history. From early in the 19th


century




Britain started smuggling large quantities of opium into China




causing a great outflow


of Chinese silver and grave economic disruption in China. In 1839




the Qing government sent


Commissioner


Lin


Zexu


to


Guangdong


to


put


into


effect


the


prohibition


on


opium


trafficking.


When




in an effort to protect its opium trade




Britain initiated the First Opium War in 1840




the Chinese people rose in armed struggle against the invaders under the leadership of Lin Zexu


and other patriotic generals. But the corrupt and incompetent Qing government capitulated to


the foreign invaders time and again




and finally signed the Treaty of Nanjing with Britain




a


treaty of national betrayal and humiliation. From then on




China was reduced to a semi-colonial


and semi-feudal country.





After the Opium War




Britain




the United States




France




Russia and Japan forced the


Qing government to sign various unequal treaties




seized





the


Chinese


people


waged


heroic


struggles




with


many


national


heroes


coming


to


the


fore.


The


Revolution of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in 1851




led by Hong Xiuquan




was the largest


peasant uprising in modern Chinese history. The Revolution of 1911




a bourgeois-democratic


revolution led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen




ended the rule of the Qing Dynasty. The monarchical system


that had been in place in China for more than 2



000 years was discarded with the founding of


the


provisional


government


of


the


Republic


of


China.


The


Revolution


of


1911


is


of


great


significance


in


modern


Chinese


history.


But


the


fruits


of


victory


were


soon


compromised


by


concessions


on


the


part


of


the


Chinese


bourgeoisie




and


the


country


entered


a


period


of


domination


by


the


Northern


Warlords


headed


by


Yuan


Shikai.


The


people


lived


in


an


abyss


of


misery in this period.





New Democratic Revolution





Period


< br>1919-1949







Under the influence of the October Revolution in Russia




China's May 4th Movement arose.


During this great anti-imperialist




anti-feudal revolutionary movement led by patriotic students




the


Chinese


proletariat


for the


first


time


mounted


the political


stage.


The


May


4th


Movement


marked the change of the old democratic revolution to the new democratic revolution. It enabled


Marxism-Leninism to further spread and link up with the Chinese people's revolutionary practice




and prepared the ideology as well as the cadres necessary for the founding of the Communist


Party of China. In 1921




Mao Zedong




Dong Biwu




Chen Tanqiu




He Shuheng




Wang Jinmei




Deng Enming and Li Da




representing the communist groups in different places throughout the


nation




held the First National Congress in Shanghai




founding the Communist Party of China



CPC



. In 1924




Sun Yat- sen




pioneer of China's democratic revolution and the founder of the

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