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英国历史简介 Brief Introduction of English History

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2021-02-22 19:44
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2021年2月22日发(作者:accountants)


The Origins of a Nation (5000BC-1066)



I.



Early Settlers



5 000BC-55BC




The Iberians


The Beaker Folk


The Celts


II.



Roman Britain (55BC-410AD)


British recorded history begins with the Roman invasion. In 55BC and 54BC,


Julius Caesar, a Roman general, invaded Britain twice. In AD 43, the Emperor


Claudius invaded Britain successfully. For nearly 400 years, Britain was under


the Roman occupation, though it was never a total occupation.



III.



The Anglo- Saxons (446-871)


In the mid-5th century a new wave of invaders, Jutes, Saxons, and Angles


came to Britain. They were three Teutonic tribes. The Jutes, who fished and


farmed in Jutland, came to Britain first. A Jutish chief became the King of


Kent in 449. Then the Saxons, users of the short-sword from northern


Germany, established their kingdom in Essex, Sussex and Wessex from the


end of the 5th century to the beginning of the 6th century. In the second half


of the 6th century, the Angles, who also came from northern Germany and


were to give their name to the English people, settled in East Anglia, Mercia


and Northumbria. These seven principal kingdoms of Kent, Essex, Sussex,


Wessex, East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria have been given the name of


Heptarchy.



IV



Viking and Danish invasions


The invaders were the Norwegians and the Danes. They attacked various parts


of England from the end of the 8th century. They became a serious problem in


the 9th century, especially between 835 and 878. They even managed to


capture York, an important center of Christianity in 867. By the middle of 9th



1


century, the Viking and the Danes were posing a threat to the Saxon kingdom


of Wessex.



Alfred


was a king of Wessex. He defeated the Danes and reached a friendly


agreement with them in 879. The Danes gained control of the north and east,


while he ruled the rest. He also converted some leading Danes into Christians.



He founded a strong fleet and is known as


“the



father of the British navy”. He


reorganized the Saxon army, making it more efficient. He translated a Latin


book into English. He also established schools and formulated a legal system.


All this earns him the title “Alfred the Great.”



V



The Norman Conquest (1066)


The Norman Conquest of 1066 is perhaps the best-known event in English


history. William the Conqueror confiscated almost all the land and gave it to


his Norman followers. He replaced the weak Saxon rule with a strong Norman


government. He replaced the weak Saxon rule with a strong Norman


government. So the feudal system was completely established in England.


Relations with the Continent were opened, and the civilization and commerce


were extended. Norman-French culture, language, manners and architecture


were introduced. The Church was brought into closer connection with Rome,


and the church courts were separated from the civil courts.



The Shaping of the Nation



1066-1381




Norman Rule



1066-1381




William's Rule



1 066-1087




King Henry II and his reforms



The Great Charter


The origins of the English Parliament



The Hundred Years' War



The Hundred Years? War refers to the war


between England and France that lasted intermittently from 1337 to 1453. The



2


causes of the war were partly territorial and partly economic. The territorial


causes were related with the possession by the English kings of the large


duchy in France




while the French kings coveted this large slice. The


economic causes were connected with cloth manufacturing towns in Flanders




which were the importer of English wool




but they were loyal to the French


king politically. Besides




England's desire to stop France from giving aid to


Scots and a growing sense of nationalism were the other causes.



The English being driven out of France is regarded as a blessing for both


countries. If the English had remained in France




the superior size and


wealth of France would have hindered the development of a separate English


national identity




while France was hindered so long as a foreign power


occupied so much French territory.





The Black Death



The Black Death is the modern name given to the deadly epidemic disease


spread by rat fleas across Europe in the 14th century. It swept through


England in the summer of 1348. It reduced England's population from four


million to two million by the end of the 14th century.



The Peasant Uprising of 1381


Armed villagers and townsmen of Kent and Essex




led by Wat Tyler and Jack


Straw




moved on London in June




1381. The king was forced to accept their


demands. Most of the rebels dispersed and went home




while Tyler and other


leaders stayed on for more rights. Tyler was killed at a meeting with the king.




The uprising was brutally suppressed




but it had far-reaching significance


in English history. First




it directed against the rich clergy




lawyers and the


landowners. Second




it dealt a telling blow to villeinage




and third




a new


class of yeomen farmers emerged




paving the way to the development of


capitalism.





3


Transition to the Modern Age (1455-1688)



The Wars of Rose


The name Wars of the Roses was refer to the battles between the House of


Lancaster




symbolized by the read rose




and that of York




symbolized by


the white




from 1455 to 1485. Henry Tudor




descendant of Duke of


Lancaster won victory at Bosworth Fireld in 1485 and put ht country under


the rule of the Tudors. From these Wars




English feudalism received its death


blow. The great medieval nobility was much weakened.



The English Reformation


Henry VIII was above all responsible for the religious reform of the church.


There were three main causes




a desire for change and reform in the church


had been growing for many years and now




encouraged by the success of


Martin Luther




many people believed its time had come




the privilege and


wealth of the clergy were resented




and Henry needed money.



Elizabeth I



1558 -1603




The English Renaissance



The Civil Wars


Because of the absolute rule of Charles




the confrontation between Charles I


and the parliament developed into the civil war. The war began on August 22



1642 and ended in 1651. Charles I was condemned to death.



The English Civil War is also called the Puritan Revolution. It has been seen as


a conflict between the parliament and the King




and a conflict between


economic interests of the Crown. The economic interests of the urban middle


classed coincided with their religious




Puritan




ideology while the Cr


own?s


traditional economic interests correspondingly allied with Anglican religious


belief. The English Civil War not only overthrew feudal system in England but


also shook the foundation of the feudal rule in Europe. It is generally regarded


as the beginning of modern world history.




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