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2021-02-22 19:44
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2021年2月22日发(作者:examples)


the People's Republic of


China is a unitary multi-ethnic state,comprising the han people and


over fifty ethnic minorities .


中华人民共和国是一个包含了汉族和


50

多个少数民族的统一多民族


国家。



With a sizable population of 8.61 million, the Hui ethnic group is one of China's largest ethnic


minorities. People of Hui origin can be found in most of the counties and cities throughout the


country, especially in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Gansu, Qinghai, Henan, Hebei,


Shandong and Yunnan provinces and the X


injiang Uygur Autonomous Region.



有着一个庞大的


861


万人口的回族族群是中国最大的少数民族。回族人遍布于全国很多城市和地



,


特别是在宁夏回族自治区、甘肃、青海、河南、河北、山东、 云南和新疆维吾尔自治区。




History




The


name


Hui


is


an


abbreviation


for



which


first


appeared


in


the


literature


of


the


Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127). It referred to the Huihe people (the Ouigurs) who lived in


Anxi in the present-day Xinjiang and its vicinity since the T


ang Dynasty (618


-907). They were


actually forerunners of the present-day Uygurs, who are totally different


from today's Huis or


Huihuis.



回族是回回族的 简称


,


第一次出现在北宋


(

< p>
公元


960 - 1127)


的文献中。它指的是 唐代


(


公元


618 -


907)


住在安西当今新疆及周边的


Huihe



(Ouigurs)


< br>其实他们是今天维吾尔族的祖先


,


完全不同


于今天的回族或


Huihuis


< br>


During the early years of the 13th century when Mongolian troops were making their western


expeditions, group after group of Islamic-oriented people from Middle Asia, as well as Persians


and


Arabs,


either


were


forced


to


move


or


voluntarily


migrated


into


China.


As


artisans,


tradesmen, scholars, officials and religious leaders, they spread to many parts of the country


and settled down mainly to livestock breeding.


These


peo


ple,


who were also called


Huis


or


Huihuis


because


their


religious


beliefs


were


identical


with


people


in


Anxi,


were


part


of


the


ancestors to today's Huis.



在早期的


13


世纪蒙古军队向西的远征


,

使一批又一批信仰伊斯兰教的中亚人以及波斯和阿拉伯



,


要么被迫迁移要么自愿进入中国。


那些工匠,

< br>商人、


学者、


政府官员和宗教领袖


,


他们流落到


中国的许多地区落户,


主要从事养殖业。


这些人


,


被称为回族 或回回


,


因为他们的宗教信仰与安西


人 相。这其中的一部分人就是今天回族的祖先。



Earlier, about the middle of the 7th century, Islamic Arabs and Persians came to China to trade


and


later


some


became


permanent


residents


of


such


cities


as


Guangzhou,


Quanzhou,


Hangzhou,


Yangzhou


and


Chang'an


(today's


X


i'an).


These


people,


referred


to


as



(guests


from


outlying


regions),


built


mosques


and


public


cemeteries


for


themselves.


Some


married


and had children who came to


be known as


fanke,


guests from


outlying


regions.


people became


part of the Huihuis, who were coming in great numbers to China from Middle Asia.



早些时候


,


大约


7


世纪中期


,


伊斯兰阿拉伯人和波斯人来中国进行贸易,后来一些定居在广州,泉


州、 杭州、扬州、长安


(


今天的西安


)


等地。这些人被称为



番客



(


应该是从边远地区来的客人


)



他们为自己建造清真寺和公众坟场。一些人结了婚


,


生的孩子后来被称为


土生番客



,


意思表示

< p>


本地出生的从边远地区来的客人。在元朝


(12 71 - 1368),


这些人成为大量从中亚来到中国的回


回 的一部分。




The Huihuis of today are therefore an ethnic group that finds its origins mainly with the


above-mentioned two categories, which in the course of development took in people from a


number of other ethnic groups including the Hans, Mongolians and Uygurs.


< p>
今天的回回因此主要起源于上述两类


,


并在发展的 过程吸纳了许多其他民族包括汉族、蒙古族和


维吾尔族的民族。



It is generally acknowledged that Huihui culture began mainly during the Yuan Dynasty.



一般都认为回回文化主要开始在元朝。



Warfare and farming were the two dominant factors of this period. During their westward


invasion, the Mongols turned people from Middle Asia into scouts and sent them eas


tward on


military missions. These civilians-turned-military scouts were expected to settle down at


various locations and to breed livestock while maintaining combat readiness. They founded


settlements in areas in today's Gansu, Henan, Shandong, Hebei and Yunnan provinces and


the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. They later were joined by more scouts sent from the


west. As time went by they became ordinary farmers and herdsmen. Among the Islamic Middle


Asians, there were a number of artisans and tradesmen. The majority of these people settled


in cities and along vital communication lines, taking to handicrafts and commerce. Because of


these activities a common economic life began to take shape among the Huihuis. Scattered as


they were, they stuck together in relative concentration in settlements and around mosques


which they built. This has been handed down as a specific feature of the distribution of Hui


population in China.



战争和农业是这个时期的两个主导因素。在西 征期间


,


蒙古人把从中亚强征的人派去东方执行军


事任务。


这些壮丁定居在各地从事畜牧业并保持战备。


他们定居在了今天的甘肃地区、河南、



东、


河北、


云南和宁夏回族自治区。


后来又派来了更多的从 西方来的壮丁加入了他们。


随着时间


的推移

,


他们成了普通的农民和牧民。


在亚洲伊斯兰中间


,


有一系列的工匠和商人。


绝大多数人住


在城市


,


沿着一条重要的交通流线、带去工艺 品和商业的发展。因为这些活动的一个共同的经济


生活中开始形成回回。分散他们


,


他们一起在相对集中在定居点和在他们所修建清真寺。这已经


传了作为一种具体的特征回族人口分布在中国。





The Huihui scouts and a good number of Huihui aristocrats, officials, scholars and merchants


sent eastward by the Mongols were quite active in China. They exercised influence on the


establishment of the Yuan Dynasty and its military, political and economic affairs. The


involvement of Huihui upper-class elements in the politics of Yuan Dynasty in turn helped to


promote the development of Huihuis in many fields.




Generally speaking, the social position of Huihuis during the Yuan Dynasty


was higher than


that of the Hans. Nevertheless, they were still subjected to the oppression of Yuan rulers. After


going through the hardships of their eastward exodus, they continued to be in the hands of


various Mongolian officials, functioning either as herdsmen or as government and army


artisans. A fraction of them even were allocated to Mongolian aristocrats to serve as house


slaves.




Being people who came to China from places where social systems, customs and habits


differed from those in the east, the Huihuis began to cultivate their own national consciousness.


This was caused also by their relative concentration with mosques as the center of their social


activities, by their increasing economic contacts with each other, by their common political fate



and their common belief in the Islamic religion.




It was during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) that the Huihuis began to emerge as an ethnic


group.




Along with the nationwide restoration and development of the social economy in the early Ming


Dynasty years, the distribution and economic status of the Huihui population underwent a


drastic change. The number of Huihuis in Shaanxi and Gansu provinces increased as more


and more Huihuis from other parts of the country submitted themselves to the Ming court and


joined their people in farming.




Other factors contributed to their dispersion: industrial and commercial exchanges,


assignment of Huihui garrison troops to various areas to open up wasteland and grow food


grain, nationwide tours by Huihui officials and scholars, and especially the migration of Huihuis


during peasant uprisings. They still managed, however, to maintain their tradition of


concentration by setting up their own villages in the countryside or sticking together in


suburban areas or along particular streets and lanes in cities. The dislocation of military scouts


dating from the Yuan Dynasty had enabled the Huihuis to extricate themselves gradually from


military involvement and to settle down to farming, breeding livestock, handicrafts and


small-scale trading. Thus they established a new common economic life among themselves,


characterized by an agricultural economy.




During the initial stage of their eastward exodus, the Huihuis used the Arab, Persian and Han


languages. However, in the course of their long years living with the Hans, and especially due


to the increasing number of Hans joining their ranks, they gradually spoke the Han language


only, while maintaining certain Arab and Persian phrases. Huihui culture originally had been


characterized by influences from the traditional culture of Western Asia and assimilation from


the Han culture. However, due to the introduction of the Han language as a common language,


the tendency to assimilate the Han culture became more obvious. The Huihuis began t


o wear


clothing like the Hans. Huihui names were still used, but Han names and surnames became


accepted and gradually became dominant.




Islamic Religion




The Islamic religion had a deep influence on the life style of the Hui people. For instance, soon


after birth, an infant was to be given a Huihui name by an ahung (imam); wedding ceremonies


must be witnessed by ahungs; a deceased person must be cleaned with water, wrapped with


white cloth and buried coffinless and promptly in the presence of an ahung who serves as the


presider. Men were accustomed to wearing white or black brimless hats, specially during


religious services, while women were seen with black, white or green scarves on their head


--


a habit which also derived from religious practices. The Huis never eat pork nor the blood of


any animal or creature that died of itself, and they refuse to take alcohol. These taboos


originated in the Koran of the Moslems. The Huis are very particular about sanitation and


hygiene. Likewise, before attending religious services, they have to observe either a


cleaning,


requires a thorough bath of the whole body.




Islamism also had great impact on the political and economic systems of Hui society.



as well as an economic system. According to the system, a mosque was to be built at each


location inhabited by Huis, ranging from a dozen to several hundred households. An imam was


to be invited to preside over the religious affairs of the community as well as to take


responsibility over all aspects of the livelihood of its members and to collect religious levies


and other taxes from them. A mosque functioned not only as a place for religious activities but


also as a rendezvous where the public met to discuss matters of common interest. Religious


communities, operating quite independently from each other, had thus become the basic social


units for the widely dispersed Hui people. Following the development of the Hui's agricultural


economy and the increase of religious taxes levied on them, some chief imams began to build


up their personal wealth. They used this to invest in land properties and engag


e in exploitation


through land rents. The imams gradually changed themselves into landlords. Working in


collaboration with secular landlords, they enjoyed comprehensive power in the religious


communities, which they held tightly under their control. They left routine religious affairs of the


mosques to low-rank ahungs.




The last stage of the Ming Dynasty and the early years of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) saw


the emergence of a new system of religious aristocracy among the Huis in Hezhou (today's


Linxia in Gansu Province). It came into existence as a result of intensified land concentration


which exceeded the boundaries of one single religious community. This made certain imams


rulers of a whole series of religious communities, turning them into Islamic aristocrats. They


were deified. Kiosks were erected in their cemeteries for Moslems under their jurisdiction to


worship. Their position was seen as hereditary. They enjoyed a series of feudalistic privileges


as well as absolute authority over their people. The system had been in existence, however,


only in some of the Hui areas in Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai. The Huis in hinterland China had


always functioned under the religious community system.




Contribution to Chinese Civilization




The Huis are an industrious people. Their development and progress have been facilitated,


however, by adopting the Han language and living with the Hans. Since the Yuan and Ming


dynasties, large numbers of Hui peasants joined the Hans and people of other nationalities in


reclaiming wasteland, farming and grazing in the hinterland and along border regions. Hui


artisans were famous for their craftsmanship in making incense, medicine, leather and


cannons, as well as in mining and smelting of ore. Hui merchants played a positive role


in the


economic exchanges between the hinterland and border regions and in trade contacts


between China and other Asian countries. Hui scholars and scientists made outstanding


contributions to China in introducing and spreading the achievements of Western Asia in

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