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俄罗斯历史(英文版)

作者:高考题库网
来源:https://bjmy2z.cn/gaokao
2021-02-22 19:45
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2021年2月22日发(作者:1851)


officially Russian Federation , Russian Rossiya or Rossiyskaya Federatsiya country that stretches


over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. Once the preeminent republic of the


Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), Russia has been an independent country since the


dissolution


of


the


union


in


December 1991.


Under


the


Soviet


system


it


was


called


the


Russian


Soviet


Federated


Socialist


Republic


(R.S.F.S.R.).


With


an


area


of


6,592,800


square


miles


(17,075,400 square kilometres), Russia is the world's largest country, covering almost twice the


territory of either the United States or China. It ranks sixth in the world in population, following


China,


India,


the


United


States,


Indonesia,


and


Brazil.


The


great


majority


of


the


people


are


Russians, but there also are some 70 smaller national groups living within its borders. Most of the


population is concentrated in a great triangle in the western, or European, part of the country,


although


over


the


past


three


centuries-and


particularly


during


the


early


and


mid-20th


century-there was a steady flow of people eastward to the Asiatic section commonly referred to


as Siberia. On its northern and eastern sides Russia is bounded by the Arctic and Pacific oceans,


and


it


has


small


frontages


in


the


northwest


on


the


Baltic


Sea


at


St.


Petersburg


and


at


the


detached Russian oblast (province) of Kaliningrad. On the south it borders North Korea, China,


Mongolia,


and


the


former


Soviet


republics


of


Kazakstan,


Azerbaijan,


and


Georgia.


On


the


southwest and west it borders the former Soviet republics of Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia, and Estonia,


as well as Finland and Norway; in addition, Kaliningrad (formerly a part of what was once East


Prussia


annexed


in


1945)


abuts


Poland


and


Lithuania.


Extending


nearly


halfway


around


the


Northern


Hemisphere


and


covering


much


of


eastern


and


northeastern


Europe


as


well


as


the


whole of northern Asia, Russia has a maximum east-west extent, along the Arctic Circle, of some


4,800


miles


(7,700


kilometres)


and


a


north-south


width


of


1,250


to


1,850


miles.


There


is


an


enormous variety of landforms and landscapes, which occur mainly in a series of broad latitudinal


belts. Arctic deserts lie in the extreme north, giving way southward to the tundra and then to the


forest zones, which cover about half of the country and give it much of its character. South of the


forest zone


lie


the wooded steppe


and


steppe,


beyond


which


are


small


sections


of


semidesert


along the northern shore of the Caspian Sea. Much of the federation lies in latitudes where the


winter


cold


is


intense


and


where


evaporation


can


barely


keep


pace


with


the


accumulation


of


moisture,


engendering


abundant


rivers,


lakes,


and


swamps.


The


capital


of


Russia


is


Moscow,


which was also the capital of the R.S.F.S.R. and of the Soviet Union. The republic itself had been


established


immediately


after


the


Russian


Revolution


of


October


(November,


New


Style)


1917


and


became


a


union


republic


on


December


30


(December


17,


Old


Style),


1922.


Following


the


termination of the U.S.S.R. in 1991, Russia joined with other former Soviet republics in forming


the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Historically, the territory of European Russia was


the core of the expanding Russian state and suffered onslaughts ranging from that of the Mongol


hordes in the 13th century to the Nazi invasion of World War II. This historical heritage, together


with


the


country's


vast


area


and


natural


wealth,


which


permitted


the


development


of


a


large-scale industrial economy, gave Russia a unique place of leadership among the former Soviet


republics. Its brooding landscapes and the complexities of the prerevolutionary society inspired


the prose and music of such giants of world culture as Anton Chekhov, Aleksandr Pushkin, Leo


Tolstoy,


and


Peter


Ilich


Tchaikovsky,


while


the


October Revolution (of 1917)


and


the


changes


it


brought were reflected in the works of such noted figures as the novelists Maksim Gorky, Mikhail


Sholokhov,


and


Aleksandr


Solzhenitsyn,


the


poet


Vladimir


Mayakovsky,


and


the


composers


Dimitry Shostakovich and Sergey Prokofiev. For the geography and history of Russia's two largest

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