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建筑学专业英语modern housing prototypes 现代住宅的原型

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2021-02-22 20:00
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2021年2月22日发(作者:产量)


two-1evel unit



复式单元



single- loaded


外廊式



double-loaded




adj.


内廊式



Walk-up



n.


无电梯的公寓


/adj.


无电梯的

< br>


skip-stop corridor


隔层设置的走廊








corridor-every-floor



每层设置走廊的



vertical circulation system


垂直交通系统



low-rise




adj.


低层




high-rise



adj.


高层



rowhouse




adj.


联排式住宅




slab



n.

板式住宅




tower




n.


塔式住宅



Single-orientation unit


单一朝向单元





















Double-Orientation Unit 90°



转角单元



















Double-Orientation Unit, open-ended


双向开敞的单元



natural light


自然采光





natural ventilation



自然通风



mechanical ventilation




机械通风



transverse walls



横墙



building codes


建筑规程



staggered- plan




交错变化的平面



auxiliary mean




辅助设施



self- contained adj.


设备齐全的



single-run



单跑楼梯








return stairs


双跑楼梯





英汉互译包含在以下加粗部分及最后一堂课讲到的例子中。



Unit 10



Section 1



Intensive


Reading



Modern Housing Prototypes


《现代住宅的原型》



Roger Sherwood



( 罗杰


·


舍伍德)




Part I



INTRODUCTION




This book is presented in the belief that a reexamination of some of the great housing projects


of this century is appropriate at a time when the design of housing commands the attention of


architects the world around. The buildings offered here as case studies were selected because


of their importance as prototypes, projects that set the standards and patterns of much that was,


and


is,


to


follow.


Other


considerations


were


diversity




so


that


a


wide


range


of


countries,


buildings


types


and


problems


would


be


represented




and


architectural


quality.


My


assumption is that there is no excuse for poor architecture; that housing, like all buildings, to


paraphrase Geoffrey Scott, must be convenient to use, soundly built, and beautiful.



当今住宅设计受到全世界建 筑师的关注,所以对本世纪一些伟大的住宅项目



1


重新考究是无可厚非的,这本书就基于此观念做了一些介绍。这里提供作为案例

< br>研究的建筑由于它们作为原型的重要而被挑选,它们确定了许多标准和模式去遵


循 。



其他的考虑是多样化和建筑品质,多样化使得大量的国家、 建筑形式和问


题将被陈述。


我的假设是任何低劣的建筑都是没有 理由的,


就像所有的建筑一样,


住宅


— —


套用杰弗里


·


斯科特的话

< p>
——


必须使用方便、建造地优良并且美观。




But why prototypes? One of the essential points of heuristic thought



the process of


discovery and invention relating to problem solving



is the awareness that, until a problem


is clearly defined, guesses or conjectures must be made to help clarify the problem. During


the period of uncertainty, reference to analogous problems can be used to give a new turn to


one’s thinking. Through the study of solutions to related problems, a fresh conclusion may


be reached.


但是为什么要有原型?一个 基本的具有启发性思考的关键


——


发现和发明的


过程与问题的解决相关


——


就是意识到在一个问题直到 被清晰地定义以前,都必


须运用猜想或推测帮助问题的澄清。在这段不确定的时期,参考 类似的问题能够


给一个人的思考以新的转折。通过对相关问题解决办法的研究,也许可以 得到一


个全新的结论。




Various writers have suggested that it is never possible to state all the dimensions of a


problem, that ―truly quantifiable criteria always leave choices for the designer to make.‖In the


absence of clear design determinants, and to avoid purely intuitive guessing, it has been


argued that analogous reference might give design insight; that perhaps a paradigm of the


problem might be accepted as a provisional solution, or an attack on the problem might be


made by adapting the solution to a previous problem; that during the period when many of the


variable are unknown, a ―typology of forms‖ might be used as a simulati


ve technique to


clarify the problem.






许多作者已经暗示过陈述一个问题的所有维度


(所有方面)


是绝不可能的,




确 的可定量的尺度总是留给设计师自己决定



。由于缺少明确的设 计决定因素以及为


了避免纯粹直觉的猜想,讨论认为相似参照物需给出设计观点,这样也 许问题的范


例可以当做临时的解决方法,或者作为问题的突破,以调整之前问题的解决方 法;


当处于很多可变因素都未知的时期,原型(



象征形式



)可以作为模拟技术使问题


变清晰。




The


notion


of


using


an


analogous


problem


as


a


paradigm


for


gaining


insight


into


a


present


problem


is


not,


of


course,


new.


A


mathematician


typically


looks


for


an


auxillary


theorem


having


the


same


or


a


similar


conclusion.


In


architecture,


invention


often


passes


through


a


phase


of


groping,


where


ideas


about


a


projected


building


form


are


triggered


by


exposure


to


some


existing


building


with


a


similar


program,


functional


specification,


or


site


condition. The analogous building then becomes in some sense a model or a prototype.


用相似的问题作为范例而得到对于当前 问题深刻认识的理念


当然并不新鲜。一位


数学家通常寻求一个有 着相同或类似结论的辅助定理。在建筑中,创造通常是经过


一个摸索的阶段获得,在此过 程中,一些现存的建筑有着相似的制式、功能规格或


基地条件,通过对这些因素的揭示, 引发出预想建筑形式的概念,那么这些类似的


建筑物在某种意义上就成为一种模型或者原 型。





2


The use of prototypes is especially useful in the design of housing because housing lends


itself to systematic typological study. Most building types, such as theaters, schools, factories,


or even office buildings, have to respond to different programs and are rarely consistent and


repetitive. Housing, because it consists of repeating units with a consistent relation to vertical


and horizontal circulation, can more logically be studied in terms of its typological variations.


Although housing would seem to embrace almost unlimited possible variations, in fact there


are


not


many


basic


organizational


possibilities


and


each


housing


type


can


be


categorized


easily.

< br>原型的用处在住宅设计中显得尤其突出,


因为住宅需要系统类型的研究

< p>


大多数建


筑类型,像剧场、学校、工厂、甚至办 公楼,都必须响应不同的策划,所以极少连


续和重复。


住宅,由 于包括重复的单元,它们有一致的水平和垂直流线的联系,所以可


以依照类型上的变化来 进行更加逻辑性的研究



尽管住宅似乎包含几乎无限种可能的< /p>


变化,但事实上没有那么多基本组织的可能性,而且每一种住宅组织类型都可以被


简单地归类。






While building regulations, construction techniques, and housing needs have


considerable impact on the form that housing may take at any given time in any given culture,


still only a few dwelling unit types are plausible, and these units may be collected together in


only a few rather limited ways that do not change very much from country to country. An


apartment building unit today in Zagreb



as an organization of building units



is much like


an apartment building in Berlin or Tokyo. Even extreme cultural requirements, such as the


provision for a tatami life-


style in Maekawa’s Harumi slab in Tokyo


(Figure 10



1)


, have


resulted in an organization that can easily be compared to a Western model: Park Hill in


Sheffield of the sixties


(Figure 10



2)


. For example, is organizationally similar. Both have


larger and smaller units in the typical section.







虽然建筑规程、建造技术和住宅需 求会在任何指定时间和任何指定文化之下


对建筑形式产生相当大的影响,仍然有少量的居 住单元形式是合理的,这些被选


择的单元以很少的相当局限的方式组合在一起,这些方法 在国家与国家之间改变


很小。


现今在萨格勒布的一个公寓大楼单 元


——


像一个建筑单元的组合


——


与柏林


或东京的公寓大楼很像。即使是极端的文化需求,例如在东京 的提供榻榻米生活方


式的



Maekawa's Harumi


公寓,

也成为一个组织能够容易地与西方范例作比较:


例如,


60


年代在谢菲尔德(


Sheffield


)的


Park Hill



湖滨公寓< /p>


)(图


10-2


)。他们在组织上


很相似,都在典型的剖面中有大大小小的单元。




Entrance to the larger of the two



a two-level unit



is at the corridor level, with rooms above:


stairs lead to the smaller unit below. In each, therefore, the corridor occurs at every other level,


and stairs lead up and down from there. Although the position of the stairs, kitchen, and both


are different



along parallel walls in Harumi and in a zone parallel to the corridor in Park Hill



and the sitings of the buildings are quite different, nevertheless they are organized


fundamentally alike. Even the Arab housing designed in Morocco in the fifties by


ATBAT


(Figure 10



3)


, where cultural requirements dictated absolute visual privacy,


outdoor cooking, and a lack of the usual room subdivisions and conventional toilets, resulted


in a building which, although it has a peculiar checkerboard elevation, is more or less a


conventional single- loaded, gallery access apartment building.



通向两个中较大的一个复式单元的入口是 在走廊层面上,


它的上方有房


间:


楼梯 通



3


向下面较小的单元。因此,在 每一栋楼里,走廊出现在每两层,楼梯引导着内部上


与下。尽管楼梯和厨房的位置都不一 样


——


(楼梯)沿着


Harumi


的平行墙和一个平


行于


Park Hill


走廊的区域


——


以及建筑的基址也相当 不同,但他们的组织形式基本


上是相同的。甚至在


50


年代由


ATBAT


事务所设计的位于摩洛哥的< /p>


Arab


住宅(图


10-3


),(这是为传统穆斯林设计的住宅)当地的文化要求决定着:要有绝对的视


觉私密性、户外烹调,由于缺乏对普通房间的划分和传统的厕所,尽管它有着独特


的棋盘 式立面,也导致这个建筑差不多就是传统的外廊、走廊进入式的公寓建筑。






Whatever


his


cultural,


economic


and


technical


constraints,


every


architect


is


confronted


with


choices


and


questions


about


organization.


How


will


the


individual


apartments


be


arranged? How will the mix of different apartment types be accommodated? What circulation


systems




horizontal


and


vertical




can


service


this


mix


of


apartments?


What


is


the


best


circulation


system? Walk-up


or


single-loaded,


double- loaded,


or


skip-stop


corridor


system?


Where is entrance and access to the vertical circulation system? What building form dose this


collection


of


units


take:


low- rise


or


high-rise,


rowhouse,


slab


or


tower? These


fundamental


organization


questions


are


pertinent


to


any


housing


project.


Modern


Housing


Prototypes


is


intended to provide the architect with a set of analogues references to help him solve these


basic organizational problems.


无论它的文化,经济,技术限制 如何,每个建筑师都应该要正视组织形式的选择和


问题。


如何布 置单独的公寓?如何使混合的不同公寓类型相互适应?什么样的交通系统


能给混合的公寓 提供水平和垂直的服务?什么是最好的交通系统?无电梯的公寓、


外廊

< br>式、内廊式、还是隔层设置走廊系统?哪里是垂直交通系统的入口和通道位置?单元集

合采取怎样的建筑形式:低层,高层,联排住宅,板式住宅还是塔式住宅?这些基础的


组织问题与各种住宅项目都息息相关。


《现代住宅的原形》试图提供给建筑师一套类似


的参考去帮助他们解决这些基本的组织问题。




















4


Unit 11



Section 1



Intensive Reading



Modern Housing Prototypes



Roger Sherwood



Part II



Unit Types



Beginning with basic apartments or units, only two are suitable for repetitive use; one other




the 90°


double-orientation unit



has limited application. The basic types are:








Single-orientation


unit


Double-Orientation


90°




Unit


Double-Orientation


open-ended



Unit,


从基本的公寓或单元开始,只有两个是适合重复使用的;另一个转角单元有限制适


用条件。基本的形式有:单一朝向单元、转角单元和双向开敞单元。





Each


of


these


three


unit


type


has


several


typical


variations,


depending


upon


the


positioning


of


core


elements




kitchen,


bath


and


stairs


(when


used


inside


the


unit)




the


entrance options, and the depths necessary for natural light. Minimum unit dimensions vary


from


country


to


country


as


building


regulations


and


construction


practices


differ,


and


the


arrangement of core elements, natural light, and ventilation requirements change from place


to place.


这三个单元类型中的每一个 都有几个典型的变化,


取决于核心元素:


厨房、


洗浴室、


楼梯(当它在室内使用的时候)的位置,入口的选择和自然光所需的进 深。极少量的单


元尺寸随着各国建筑法规和结构实践的不同而不同。

核心元素的安排,


自然采光和通风


要求随着地域不同而变化 。




Single- orientation unit


单一朝向的单元






Units


that


open


or


face


to


one


side


come


in


two


types:


with


core


elements


arranged


along


transverse walls, perpendicular to the corridor. Although these units have a preferred side




they face outward and are most often used where three sides are closed except for the entrance


from the corridor (a typical double-loaded corridor arrangement)



some single- loaded, open


gallery-access versions may have some minor windows opening to the gallery.



5



有一面开敞或单一朝向的单元演变出两种类型,


它们的核心元素垂直于走 廊沿横墙


布置。虽然这些单元有更好的朝向


——


它们朝向外面,经常以通向走廊的入口开敞其他


三边都围闭的方式被使用(一种 典型的内廊安排)


——



一些外廊式的 、向走廊开口的


类型可能会有一些小窗户开向走廊。




Single-orientation unit: transverse core.



单一朝向单元:横向核心




This type has the advantage of using the transverse structural wall for core elements, so


that most plumbing and mechanical stacks are adjacent to structural walls in a back- to-back


arrangement between units. The obvious disadvantage with the type is that the kitchen and in


some cases the bath are taking up exterior surface which could be better used for living and


sleeping areas, since under many building codes the kitchen and bath do not require natural


light and ventilation. An awkward plan can result when the kitchen is on one transverse wall


and


the


bath


on


the


other.


Also,


the


blank


exterior


walls


that


core


elements


tend


to


create


(especially with the small windows typically used in a kitchen or bath) generate elevational


problems: these blank surfaces also contradict the preferred side characteristics of the type.


这种形式的优势是利用 横向的结构墙用作核心元素,


因此大部分的管路系统和机械


堆叠 在单元之间背靠背地毗邻结构墙。


这种形式有个明显的缺点就是:厨房,以及在某


些情况下洗浴室占用了对于起居室和卧室来说更好的外表面,


因为在很 多建筑规程里厨


房和洗浴室不需要自然采光和通风。


一个糟糕的 平面会导致厨房在一边横墙而洗浴室在


另一边。同时,核心元素想要创造的空白的外墙( 特别是用在厨房和浴室的典型的小窗


子)产生立面问题:这些空白表面也和更好一面的形 式特征相抵触。




The typical unit may include a scheme where the kitchen and bath are together on one


wall with the kitchen to the outside, like the Sorgenfri block in Malmo, Sweden, by Jaenecke


and Samuelson (Figure 11-1). Other variations include two-story units such as Lincoln Estate


slab by J. I. Martin (Figure 11-2). Here two units interlock around an interior core of stairs


and toilets; the kitchen in each unit is in a zone along the transverse wall on one side of the


building. Park Hill (Figure 10-2) has a similar arrangement although it employs an alternate


level corridor; the floor above and below the corridor level are double- orientation unit types


(open both front and rear), with the kitchens lining up on one side of the building.


典型的单元包括这样一种方案,厨房和浴室一起占 据同一面墙而厨房靠外,就像由


Jaenecke


< p>
Samuelson


在瑞典马尔莫设计的


sorg enfri


社区(图


11-1



。其他的变化包括


二层单元,像



设计的林肯酒庄板式楼


(Lincoln


Esta te)


(图


11-2



。两个单元围


绕室内的楼梯、卫生间核心相互结合在一起;在每个单元中,厨房 处于一个沿横墙的区


域里布置在建筑的一边。


Park


Hill


有着相似的布局(图


10-2



,虽然他采用了另外一种


水平廊道。廊道上 下的楼层是双向开敞的单元形式(前后都开门)


,厨房排成一行布置

在建筑的一侧。




6




FIGURE


11-1


Sorgenfri


apartment


block,


Malmo,


FIGURE 11-2 Lincoln Estate, London. Martin, Bennett,


Sweden, Jaenecke and Samuelson, 1959


and Lewis, 1960.




Unit 12



Section 1



Intensive Reading



Modern Housing Prototypes



Roger Sherwood




Part




Single-orientation


unit;


interior


core


along


the


corrido r


.



一朝向单元;内部核心沿走廊布 置。



In the more common type of single-orientation unit, the core elements are arranged in a


zone parallel and adjacent to the corridor. Entrance is through this zone into the main spaces


of the apartment, thus letting the major rooms open to the preferred side of the building. The


kitchen


and


bath


are


interior


spaces


with


mechanical


ventilation.


This


simpler


plan


usually


features


a


compact


back- to-back


kitchen


and


bath


grouping


and


clear,


consistent


zoning


of


spaces. The double-loaded corridor slabs designed by Mies van der Rohe (Figure 12-1) are


planned this way. He modifies the idea slightly in the Lake Shore Drive apartments (Figure


12-2), where the bath and kitchen are back-to-back but the kitchen opens to the major spaces


on


the


preferred


side.


Although


more


typically


a


plan


for


double-loaded


corridor


buildings


(where


apartments


are


located


on


both


sides


of


the


corridor),


the


type


is


also


used


for


single-loaded or access-gallery plans. The Lamble Street project by Powell and Moya (Figure


12-3) is an example of this type. Or, for a lower density type, there are the courtyard houses


by Korhonen and Laapotti in Finland (Figure 12-4).


在多数普 遍的单一朝向单元中,


核心元素被布置在平行和紧邻走廊的区域。


入口通


过这个区域进入到住宅的主要空间,


这样使得建筑的主 要房间能向更好的朝向开敞。



房和浴室设在内部空间,带有机 械通风设备。这种简单的平面通常以紧密相连的厨房、


浴室组团和清晰连续的空间划分为 特征。


由密斯凡德罗



Mies van der Rohe



设计的内


廊式板式建筑就是以这种方式设计的(图


12-1


< p>
。他在湖滨公寓(


Lake


Shore


Drive



7

< br>apartments


)设计中稍微修改了一下这个概念,厨房和浴室仍然紧密相 连,但厨房开向


更好朝向的主要空间(图


12-2



。尽管这种设计在内廊式建筑中更为典型(房间在走廊

两边均有布置)


,但这种类型也同样适用于外廊式和走廊进入式的平面。由


Powell




Mo ya


负责的


Lamble


大街项目是这 种类型的例子(图


12-3



。或,在 低密度类型中,有


芬兰的


Korhonen


Laapotti


设计的带有庭院的住宅(图

< p>
12-4






Aalto’s


apartments


at


Bremen


(Figure


12


-5),


an


unusual


variation


of


the


single- orientation type, consist of fan-shaped units opening out to the site. Core elements here,


although placed along transverse structural walls, are nevertheless in an interior zone along


the corridor. The preston housing by Stirling and Gowan (Figure 12-6) is a two-storey version


of the same type. These two are single-loaded


corridor examples,


but


the single- orientation


unit type is probably most advantageous where three sides of the unit are closed, implying a


double-loaded, corridor-every-floor organization.


阿尔托(


Aalto


)设计的不莱梅港(


Bre men


)的公寓(图


12-5



,是一个单朝向户型


的不寻常的变体,由向基地外围开敞的扇形单元组 成。这里的核心元素,虽然是沿着横


向结构墙布置的,


却是在一 个沿着走廊的室内空间内。


斯特林



S tirling



和高恩


< p>
Gowan



设计的普林斯顿(

< br>Preston


)住宅(图


12-6

)是一个户型相同的两层的版本。以上两种是


外廊式住宅的实例,

< br>然而这个单朝向单元类型可能对于那些三面封闭的,


意味着内廊式,


每层设置楼梯的结构组织是最适用的。




A common variation of the single- oriented unit (applicable to units with either transverse


or interior core) works from a strategy of increasing the exterior surface on the open side of


the unit so that more rooms can get light and air. Le Co


rbusier’s Immeuble Villas projects of


the twenties (Figure 12-7) were of this type: L-shaped units around an open terrace. Although


the


Immeuble


Villas


are


two- storey


units


with


minor


windows


on


the


corridor


side


of


the


upper floor of each unit, implying a double orientation, the zone of large volumes and terraces


to


one


side


contribute


to


a


definite


preferred


condition.


This


type


can


work


in


a


single-


or


double-loaded


situation.


Bishopsfield


and


Charters


Cross


housing


at


Harlow


by


Michael


Neyland (Figure 12-8) is another example of a repeating L-plan, in this case, double-loaded


with corridor walls containing only minor windows to the kitchens.


一个单朝向的普遍变型单元(适用于横的或是室内的核心)工作原理即是通过增大


单元开敞一边的外表面来使得更多的房间可以获得采光通风。



.


柯布西耶的二十世纪


―I


mmeuble


别墅





大厦别墅



< p>
项目就是这一单元类型(图


12-7


< p>


L


形的单元围绕开放的


平台。


虽然


―Immeuble


别墅< /p>



是两层的单元,


每个单元的上层面向走 廊一边有小窗户,



意味着它的双朝向性,但是大量的区域和一 边的阳台是用作划分一个较优的环境。这一


类型可适用于外廊或内廊的建筑设计情况。位 于哈洛(


Harlow


)并由


Mich ael


Neyland


(迈克尔


.< /p>


尼兰)设计的


―Bishopsfield


and


Charters


Cros s‖


住房是另一个重复


―L‖


型单元< /p>


的例子,在这个案例,内廊的廊道上只有厨房那一面墙有小窗口。




Aalto’s Hansa apartments in Be


rlin (Figure 12-9) are basically a single-oriented type that


follows


the


strategy


of


increasing


exterior


surface:


its


U-plan


features


dining,


living,


and


bedrooms


all


around


a


central


terrace.


Schindler’s


EL


Pueblo


Ribera


houses


at


La


Jolla


(Figure


12-10)


are


also


single-orientation,


U-shaped


units


coupled


together


in


pairs


with


hedges used to define and enclose the courtyard spaces.


阿尔托在柏林的汉莎公寓(


Hansa apartments



(图


12-9


)是在单朝向的类型基础上


遵循增加外表面的策略:


它的


U


型平面是以餐厅、


起居室和卧室围绕一个 中心平台作为


特色。


辛德勒在


la Jolla



EL Pueblo Ribera


住宅也是单朝向的


U


型单元,


两个单元通过



8


划分界限和围合 庭院空间的树篱结合起来(图


12-10





A possible variation of the single-orientation type is the matte housing scheme, where a


matrix of walls is built with each unit inside a walled-in area. Access requirements limit the


number of collective arrangements possible, but Egon Eiermann’s matte housing in Frankfurt


of 1966 (Figure12-11) is an example of this type. Although there are small private gardens on


the entrance side of each apartment, most major spaces open to a private garden to the rear,


establishing the single orientation.



单朝向样式的一种可能的变体是表面粗糙的住宅方案,


这个方案是在每一个单元用


墙围住的区域内部,墙像矩阵一样排列建造 。


(如图


12-11



。入口的要求限制了单元集


体安排的数量,


但是


Egon Eiermann


设计的在


196 6


年法兰克福的表面粗糙的住宅就是这


种类型的一个例子(图< /p>


12-11



。虽然在每个公寓入口一边 有小的私人花园,但是大多数


的主要空间都是朝向在后方的私人花园,形成了住宅的单朝 向性。




FIGURE 12-1 Apartments, Baltimore. Mies van der


Rohe, c. 1965




FIGURE 12-2 Lake Shore Drive apartments, Chicago.


Mies van der Rohe, 1948



FIGURE


12-3


Lamble


Street


housing,


London.


Powell and Moya, 1954




FIGURE


12-4


Courtyard


housing,


Espoo,


Finland,


Korhonen and Laapotti, c. 1968.




FIGURE


12-5


Neue


Vahr


Apartments,


Bremen.


FIGURE 12-6 Preston housing, Lancashire. Stirling and


Alvar Aalto,1958


Gowan, 1961




9



FIGURE


12-7


Immeuble


Villas


project,


Le


Corbusier, 1922.




FIGURE


12-8


Bishopsfield


and


Charters


Cross,


Harlow, Essex. Michael Neyland, 1960.




FIGURE


12-10


El


Pueblo


Ribera


piano


houses,


La


FIGURE


12-9


Hansaviertel


apartments,


Alvar


Jolla. R. M. Schindler, 1923.


Aalto, 1956.





FIGURE


12-11


Patio


housing,


Frankfurt.


Egon


Eiermann, 1966.





10


Unit 13



Section 1



Intensive Reading



Modern Housing Prototypes



Roger Sherwood



Part




Double-Orientation Unit, 90°


(degrees)


转角单元








Double-orientation unit types come in many variations and can be collected together in


many different ways. The corner type or 90°


double-orientation unit may be seen simply as a


singly- oriented


in


which


one


of


the


three


closed


walls


has


been


opened


up.


This


limits


the


strategies


of


collecting


units


together,


since


each


needs


a


corner,


and


the


use


of


this


type


seems to be limited to towers, smaller freestanding buildings, and to certain kinds of terrace


housing.

< p>
双朝向单元有很多种变型,且可以通过很多不同方式集合起来。转角型或称


90°



向开敞单元可以简单看成是单朝向建筑三面围合的墙体 中有一面打开的形式。


由于每个


单元都需要有一个转角,


这些单元组合的方式便受到了限制,


而且这种类型建筑的运用


范围貌似被局限在塔式建筑、小型独立建筑和一些特定类型的阶梯式住宅。





Frank Lloyd Wright’s Suntop Homes are a good example of this type: four units within


crossed


party


walls,


e


ach


three


stories


high


opening


at


the


corner.


Wright’s


earlier


versions


like


the


Cloverleaf


development


(Figure13-


1)


introduced


an


internal


courtyard.


St.


Mark’s


Tower (Figure13-2) and the built version of it, the Bartlesville Price Tower, adopt the same


parti


of four corner units with core elements on the interior. Buildings employing this kind of


unit necessarily must be freestanding, with private entrance required for projects like Suntop


and common lobbies for towers like Bartlesville.

< p>
弗兰克


.


劳埃德


.


赖特(


Frank Lloyd Wright


)设计的


Suntop Homes


(阳光屋顶住宅)


便是这种类型的佳例:四个单元围绕着十字型分户墙设置, 每个单元均三层楼高且在转


角开敞。赖特(


Wright


)在他早期的设计譬如三







Cloverleaf


Quadruple


Housing


project


)中 ,引入了室内庭院。圣马克塔楼(


St.


Mark’s


Tower


)和与它类似的


另外一个建成建 筑,巴特尔斯维尔(


Bartlesville


)的普赖斯塔楼 (


Price Tower



,均采用


了四个转角单元围绕内部核心的相同的构图。采用这种单元的建筑必须是独立的,且具< /p>


备像


suntop


项目中的私人入口和像 巴特尔斯维尔(


Bartlesville


)这种塔式建筑中的 公共


大堂。




11




FIGURE


13-1



Cloverleaf project. Frank Lloyd Wright, 1939.



FIGURE


13-2



St. Mark’s Tower, project. Wright, 1929.




Other


examples


of


one-


or


two-story


corner


units


include


the


atrium


houses


at


Sc


hwerzenback


in


Switzerland


by


Kunz


(Figure13-3)


and


the


Candilis,


Josic,


and


Woods



projects,


which


often


consist


of


buildings


planned


to


gain


the


corner


advantage


even


to


the


extent


of


creating


site


arrangements


consisting


of


many


staggered-plan


buildings



in


an


overall


system


designed


to


maximize


peripheral


surface


(Figure13-4).


Most


com


pact


towers


use


this


type:


for


example,


the


Vallingby


tower


by


Ancker


and


Gate


(Figu


re13-5)


or


the


Nirwana


apartment


buildings


by


Duiker


(Figure13-6),


which


have


a


muc


h


larger


area


in


plan


but


are


organized


with


an


apartment


in


the


each


corner.


其他的一层或两层的转角单元的实例包括位于 瑞士


Schwerzenback




Kunz


设计的


atrium houses



Candilis, Josic



Woods


项目。这些建筑通常由建筑平面组织构 成去获得


转角优势,甚至在某种程度上进行场地规划的创造,即在整个系统中包含许多错 列平面


设计的建筑用来获得最大外表面


(分别说出了图


13-3



13-4


的 手法)



大部分紧凑型塔


楼都是用这种 类型:例如


Ancker



Gate< /p>


设计的


Vallingby tower


(图


13-5


)和


Duiker



计的


Nirwana


公寓(图


13-6



,这些平面面积 很大但都是由每个角落部分的组团构成的


建筑。




FIGURE


(Figure13-3)



Atrium


houses,


Schwerzenback,


Switzerland. Fred Kunz, 1967.



FIGUR


E


(Figure13-4)



Cluster housing project. Candilis, Josic,


and Woods, 1959.





12



FIGURE


(Figure13-5)



Tower,


Vallingby,


Sweden.


Ancker


FIGURE


(Figure13-6)



Nirwana


Apartments,


Den


Haag.


and Gate, 1953.



Johannes Duiker, 1927.





Various permutations of the tower use a strategy of creating more exterior surface and


hence more corner conditions. While many of these are not strictly 90°


units, they are versions


of


the


corner


unit


in


that


they


cannot


be


repeated


in


linear


fashion


like


the


singly- oriented


types.


The


Baldessari


in


the


Hansa


project


in


Berlin


(Figure13-7)


or


the


Albany


Houses


in


Brooklyn by Fellheimer, Wagner, and V


ollmer, done for the New York City Housing Authority


(Figure13-8), are examples of this variation.


这些塔楼的各种变换方式 通过创造更多外部平面来获得更多的转角条件。


尽管当中


的许多 并不是严格的


90°


度转角单元,但它们还是属于转角单元的类 型,因为他们不能


像单一朝向开敞型单元一样呈线性重复。柏林


Hansa


(汉莎)项目中的


Baldessari

< p>
(图


13-7



,以及由



Fellheimer


< p>
Wagner



V


oll mer


为纽约市房产管理局(


New


York


City


Housing Authority



设计完成的位于布鲁克林的


Albany Houses


(奥尔巴尼住宅)


(< /p>



13-8




都是这种类型的例子。



FIGURE


13-7



Hansaviertel


tower,


Berlin.


Luciano


FIGURE


13-8



The


Albany


Houses,


New


York.


Fellheimer,


Wagner, and Vollmer, 1950.



Baldessari, 1956.






Pinwheel plans such as the Candilis, Josic, and Woods project at Bagnols sur Ceze of 1957


(Figure13-9) try to maximize the corner situation. O. M. Ungers employed this idea with


a


slightly different variation in the Markischesviertel project in Berlin in 1962 (Figure13-10).


Here


bedrooms


are


put


into


the


corners,


which


are


solid


except


for


small


windows;


the


leftover


void


is


designated


as


living


space.


Essentially,


it


is


a


corner,


pinwheel


parti


that


generates



when used in combination



a distinctive staggered site plan (Figure13-11). This



13

-


-


-


-


-


-


-


-



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